A constituent member of Public Accountants and Auditors Board (PAAB) and Pan African Federation of Accountants (PAFA)
 
 

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INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES (IBAS)

THE INSTITUTE

In 1980, the Foundation for Business Studies was launched in Zimbabwe. The aim of the Foundation was to bring practical business education within the reach of people who have attained a secondary school leaving certificate but would not have acquired the requisite formal education to pursue the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators’ course. 
To better identify with the new thrust of the Foundation, the name was changed in 2007 to the Institute of Business and Accounting Studies (IBAS). The IBAS is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators in Zimbabwe (ICSAZ).


Not only is the Institute meeting a felt need by students but it has also achieved recognition by employers, many of whom sponsor their employees as students; and by the colleges, where the Institute’s examinations have been incorporated into business studies training programmes as a first step towards a more advanced qualification.

Standards
Standards are set and maintained by the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators in Zimbabwe, which does this with other bodies including the Zimbabwe Institute of Management.

As is well known, the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators has the highest standards of professional excellence and maintains consistent examination standards.

Employers, therefore, need to have no fears concerning the value of Certificates and Diplomas issued by the Institute of Business and Accounting Studies.

Entry Qualifications

Certificate

a) Normal entry

(i) Five ordinary level subjects including English Language and Mathematics or Principles of Accounts.
(ii) In addition to the entry requirements stated in (i) above the Institute may consider the following qualifications: 
- National Foundation Certificate in Business Studies or any other equivalent qualification.

b) Special entry

(i) The Institute may, at its discretion, approve an application from a prospective student who has not fully satisfied a substantial part of the normal educational requirements provided the prospective student has had at least two years commercial working experience. An applicant should submit a letter from an employer as proof of relevant working experience for consideration together with the application.

Intermediate Diploma & Diploma

Normal entry

(i) The following educational certificates will be accepted for registration purposes.
- An IBAS Certificate in Business and Accounting Studies.
- A Certificate in Accounting issued by a recognised Institution.
- Any other qualification judged to be the equivalent to the normal entry qualifications.

(ii) Five ordinary level subjects including English Language and Mathematics or Principles of Accounts.

Higher Diploma

Normal entry

(i) The following educational certificates will be accepted for registration purposes.
- An IBAS Diploma in Business and Accounting Studies.
- Current IBAS Diploma students can register to write the Higher Diploma provided that they would have passed at least 5 subjects at Diploma level. The student must write the remaining subject together with the Higher Diploma subjects.
- Any other qualification judged to be the equivalent to the normal entry qualifications.

(ii) Five ordinary level subjects including English Language and Mathematics or Principles of Accounts.

STUDENTSHIP

1. Only students registered with the Institute of Business and Accounting Studies are permitted to write its examinations.
2. The closing dates for registration by a student registering for the first time, to write are:
a) May examinations – 31 March 
b) November examinations – 30 September
3. All students are required to register bi-annually by 31 March and 30 September. Re-registration after this date attracts a penalty. Please note that payment of the penalty will not entitle one to write the May / November examinations.

Registration

Every applicant for registration as a student is required to complete an application form which must be accompanied by certified copies of any relevant certificates or diplomas gained since leaving school.

The Council of the Institute may accept or reject any application and its decision in this matter will be final.

Tuition

The Institute is an examining body and does not provide tuition. Tuition is provided by many private colleges and correspondence colleges.

It must be noted that it is the responsibility of students, and not of the Institute to arrange study programmes. Students are advised to register with colleges that are registered with the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education.

ASSESSMENT SCHEME

For all the IBAS courses candidates will be assessed on the basis of coursework and a written final examination. Exceptions will only be in Research Project and On the Job Training.
The assessment specification grid will be as shown below

Subject

Coursework weighting

Final Examinations weighting

Total Assessment Mark

 

30%

70%

100%

COURSEWORK MARKS

The coursework marks will be developed from written assignments

EXAMINATIONS

EXAMINATION ENTRIES

The Institute’s examinations are held in May and November of each year.

Applications to enter for the examinations must be made on the prescribed forms, which are obtainable from the office in Harare or on the Institute’s Website. Students are also encouraged to use the web portal to register for examinations once the corresponding payments have been made at the bank.

Students’ entry forms for the May examinations must reach the IBAS office in Harare on or before 31 March; and for the November examinations on or before 30 September.

The forms must be accompanied by the correct examination fee for each subject to be written. Entry forms with insufficient fees will be returned.

No entries will be accepted for the Diploma examinations until the Certificate subjects have been completed. Only full time students at a college or approved educational Institution who have passed 8 out of the 9 Certificate examinations will be permitted to write the one failed subject together with the Intermediate Diploma subjects.

No entries will be accepted for the Diploma examinations until at least five Intermediate Diploma level subjects have been passed.


PRACTICAL EXPOSURE

(i) The IBAS programme is intended to marry theory with practice. In this regard it is the Institute’s intention to have all students go through a period of practical exposure during studentship as On the Job Education and Training (OJET). Students who are unemployed or those not employed in relevant areas will be required to undergo a period of at least 12 months of industrial or commercial attachment in relevant positions. The industrial attachment will be guided by a logbook which will be submitted to the Institute by the candidates for assessment.

(ii) Information Communication Technology
Students are expected to acquaint themselves with the basic Computer operating packages used in business from a practical perspective early in their studentship.

POSTPONEMENT OF EXAMINATION ENTRIES

Examination entries will not be postponed except as stated below:

Refund of Examination Fees

Examination fees are not normally refundable, but consideration will be given to applicants for refunds on medical grounds only at the discretion of the Institute.
a) A certificate from the doctor is required, stating the nature and duration of the illness of the student. The covering letter and doctor’s certificate must reach the office not later than the end of the month in which the examination is held (i.e. by the end of May and by the end of November).

b) Notification of postponement will not be accepted by telephone, telegram, or fax.

c) In all other cases the examination fee will be forfeited if the student does not write the examination.

d) Refund of examination fees or postponement of examinations will be considered if the student withdraws the entry prior to the examination entry cut-off date. A handling fee will be charged and deducted from the amount to be refunded.

EXAMINATION REGULATIONS

It is important that students read and understand examination rules and regulations as they are strictly enforced. Any variation of the rules is entirely at the Institute’s discretion.

1. Examination Registration
Students will not be allowed to register for a subject at a higher level before they have passed a similar subject at a lower level. For example: Basic Accounting must be passed before registration for Financial Accounting is considered.

2. Any number of examination subjects may be attempted at any one sitting as long as rule 1 above is complied with. Students studying part time are advised to take no more than four subjects in a year.

3. Subjects to be taken must be accommodated within the examination timetable. If students enter for subjects that clash on the timetable, they may only write one paper and forfeit the second entry fee.


4. Applications for entry to the examination must be made on the prescribed form which must be received by the office in Harare before the closing date. Late entries are not accepted.

5. Any entry form which has not been fully and properly completed will be rejected.

6. No change in a student’s entry will be accepted after the closing date.

7. If a student satisfies the examiners in any subject he or she will be credited with a pass irrespective of performance in any other subject attempted at the same sitting.

8. Examination students are reminded that no aids are allowed into the examination hall except in the case of Open Book Examinations. Any student found cheating or intending to cheat will have his / her studentship permanently cancelled.

9. Students who are writing examinations in subjects which involve the use of statutes will only be examined on the statutes applicable at least six months prior to the examination.

10. Cellular phones are banned from the examination hall.

11. Students who arrive one hour after the start of the examination will not be allowed to enter the examination hall.

12. Students are only allowed to leave the examination hall after the first hour of the examination.

13. The Institute reserves the right to vary the examination rules as and when it is necessary.

14. Hats, headgear and inappropriate attire are banned from the examination hall.


EXAMINATION CENTRES

The Institute runs its examinations directly. Examinations may at present be written at any one of the following centres in Zimbabwe:
Bulawayo, Chinhoyi, Harare, Kadoma, Masvingo, Mutare and Shamva.
Requests to change from one examination centre to another will not be considered after the closing date for entries, unless the student has moved permanently to a considerable distance.

EXAMINATION RESULTS

Examination results will be communicated to each student by post, displayed on the Institute website or accessed on the web portal and will not be given over the telephone or by fax. Every effort is made to ensure that the results are available by 30 June in the case of the May examinations and 31 December in the case of the November examinations.

Students cannot be informed of the number of marks they have obtained in an examination but they will be given a symbol to indicate the approximate standard of their attempt.

The results letter will carry the following symbols:

MARK                          SYMBOL 
75% and above           
60% - 74%                B 
50% - 59%                C 
38% to 49%               
25% to 37%               E 
Less than 25%            F

Requests for remark of student’s scripts may be considered at the discretion of the Institute; otherwise the examiners’ decision is final.

Letters will be issued to successful students for all completed parts of the examinations. All finalists will receive a letter from the Institute confirming that they have completed the examinations and listing the subjects passed.

AWARDS

The Institute grants the following awards on completion of its examinations.

i) Certificate in Business and Accounting Studies
To obtain the Certificate a student must have been credited with nine subjects at the certificate level.

ii) Intermediate Diploma in Business and Accounting Studies
To obtain the Intermediate Diploma, a student must have been credited with all the subjects at the Intermediate Level.

iii) Diploma in Business and Accounting Studies
To obtain the diploma, a student must have been credited with all the subjects at Diploma level.

iv) Higher Diploma in Business and Accounting Studies
To obtain the Higher Diploma, a student must have been credited with all the subjects at Higher Diploma level.


SETTING AND MARKING OF IBAS EXAMINATIONS

Setting
The examinations are set and moderated by examiners and moderators appointed by the Institute.
Marking
The examinations are marked and moderated by examiners and moderators appointed by the Institute.

Examiners and Moderators
Examiners and moderators must hold at least a relevant first Degree or its equivalent.

PRIZES

A prize is available for each subject of the examination and there are also special prizes for the best overall students at Certificate, Diploma and Higher Diploma levels.

EXEMPTION POLICY
It is the Institute’s policy that exemptions will be granted on application generally on a subject for subject basis to holders of relevant diplomas and certificates from other examining bodies. The granting of exemptions remains entirely at the Institute’s discretion.

LIBRARY FACILITIES

RULES AND REGULATIONS – DZIDZO HOUSE LIBRARY

1. Purpose
The Institute’s students can use the administered library in Harare of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators. The Library is primarily a specialised resource centre designed to provide members and students with easily accessible, objective and accurate information.

2. Library Hours
Mondays to Fridays 9:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m.
Saturdays (March to May and September to November) 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
Closed on: Sundays and Public Holidays

3. Reference Service
Trained staff are available to respond to general, personal, telephone and correspondence enquiries.

4. Photocopying facilities
There are no photocopying facilities at the office.

5. Study Facilities
The library offers limited study facilities in the library lecture room but users should note that this facility is not always available.

6. Use of Material and Facilities
6.1 Free reading of past examination papers on sale is not permissible.
6.2 Books cannot be loaned – they are for use in the library only.
6.3 Users should not shelve books whether used in the main library or library reading room.
After use, books should be placed on the circulation desk.
6.4 Bags, satchels, personal books, large files, newspapers and other items should be left in the library office at the owner’s risk.
6.5 In order to ensure maximum security of books and materials in the library, users may be subjected to searching.
6.6 Users found leaving the library with materials uncleared by the library staff may be subject to suspension from the library for a period to be fixed by the Librarian in consultation with the Institute’s Administrator or Manager–Students Services.
6.7 Cellular phones are not allowed in the library.

7. Library Membership
Entry to the library is free to the following persons.
7.1 Registered IBAS Students
7.2 Registered ICSAZ Students
7.3 Graduates – (Grad.ICSA) in good standing 
7.4 Associates – (ACIS) in good standing
7.5 Fellows – (FCIS) in good standing
7.6 Students from other Institutes that may be authorised by management.

Other Library Venues in Zimbabwe

(1) Speciss College, 39/41 Jason Moyo Avenue, between 2nd and 3rd Avenues, Bulawayo
(2) Turner Memorial Library, Civic Centre, Mutare
(3) Gweru Memorial Library, 54-8th Street, Gweru
(4) Masvingo Polytechnic College, Masvingo
(5) Redcliff Municipal Library, Redcliff Civic Centre
(6) Chinhoyi Public Library, Cnr Chegutu Road and Jongwe Street
(7) Victoria Falls library – Victoria Falls

You will need to contact the individual library for details regarding access to the Institute’s library books.

Please Note:
The libraries are not equipped to provide students with their full reading requirements. Students should obtain the essential textbooks and use the library facilities to supplement their study requirements.



PART TWO

INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES CURRICULUM AND SYLLABI

The curriculum structure for the Institute’s programmes with expected minimum study duration per subject is as shown below:

CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES Duration of Study in Hours
Code Subject 
CT1.2 BUSINESS ENGLISH 60
CT2.2 BASIC ACCOUNTING 70
CT3.2 BUSINESS METHODS 70
CT4.2 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES 90
CT5.2 BUSINESS ECONOMICS 90
CT6.2 INTRODUCTION TO LAW 70
CT7.2 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS 90
CT8.2 NATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES 60
CT9.2 ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS DEVELOPMENT 70

INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES Duration of Study in Hours
Code Subject 
IDP1.2 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 100
IDP2.2 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 160
IDP3.2 BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 100
IDP4.2 QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES 160
IDP5.2 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 120
IDP6.2 BUSINESS LAW 100
IDP7.2 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 120
IDP8.2 RESEARCH METHODS 200
IDP9.2 ON THE JOB TRAINING (OJET) At least twelve (12) months

DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES Duration of Study in Hours
Code Subject 
DIP1.2 INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 120
DIP2.2 PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING 160
DIP3.2 ECONOMICS 120
DIP4.2 TAXATION 180
DIP5.2 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 120
DIP6.2 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING II 180
DIP7.2 COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING I 180
HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES Duration of Study in Hours
HD1.2 AUDITING 160
HD2.2 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT II (OPTIONAL) 200
HD3.2 CORPORATE MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE 160
HD4.2 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING III 160
HD5.2 PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTING 190
HD6.2 COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING II (OPTIONAL) 200
HD7.2 RESEARCH PROJECT 320

MODE OF STUDY

The Institute does not offer direct tuition to students. Instead, tuition for the Institute’s subjects in the curricula is offered by accredited colleges. The Institute also provides course modules to assist students in self-study.

PRACTICAL EXPOSURE

The IBAS programmes are intended to marry theory with practice. In this regard, the Institute requires all students to at least go through a period of practical exposure during studentship. The entry requirements into the Institute’s programmes ensure that IBAS students are working persons. Students who are unemployed or those not employed in relevant areas will be required to undergo a period of at least 12 months of industrial or commercial attachment in relevant positions. The industrial attachment will be guided by a logbook which will be submitted to the Institute by the candidates for assessment

Information Communication Technology

Students are expected to acquaint themselves with the basic Computer operating packages used in business from a practical perspective early in their studentship. The student is required to provide the Institute with a certificate of competence from an accredited college as proof.

CHANGE OF CURRICULUM
The change from the old curriculum and syllabi is effective from November 2015. Students who have already passed some subjects under the old curriculum will retain these subject credits.

Students should note that the old syllabus will no longer be examined. Therefore, those with outstanding subjects on any particular level will after November 2015 be required to write the additional subjects as prescribed. Please note that awards will be made using the old curriculum until after the November 2015 examinations.

Change Over To the New Curriculum 
In order not to disadvantage students who did not complete their studies in May /July 2015, the Institute has worked out a schedule for them to change over to the new curriculum.
Students who have passed the following subjects under the old curriculum will retain the subject credits as indicated.

Subject Passed (Under Old Curriculum) Subject Credited (Under New Curriculum)

Certificate Level
Business English Business English (CT)
Business Methods Business Methods (CT)
Basic Accounting Basic Accounting (CT)
Introduction to Quantitative Techniques Introduction to Quantitative Techniques (CT)
Business Economics Business Economics (CT)

Diploma Level

Business Communication Business Communication (IDP)
Financial Accounting Financial Accounting (IDP)
Business Administration Business Administration (IDP)
Quantitative Techniques Quantitative Techniques (IDP)
Information Technology Information Technology (IDP)
Introduction to Law Business Law (IDP)

Higher Diploma Level

Principles of Marketing Principles of Marketing (DIP)
Economics Managerial Economics & Economics (DIP)
Taxation Taxation (Zimbabwe) (DIP)
Human Resources Management Human Resources Management (DIP)
Financial Accounting 11 Financial Accounting 11 (DIP)
Cost Accounting Cost & Management Accounting 1 (DIP) 
and Cost & Management Accounting 11(DIP)
Auditing Auditing (HD)

The preceding table shows that students who have passed some subjects under the old curriculum will not need to write the subjects indicated under the Subject Credited heading.

Students must therefore study the table carefully to take note of the subjects they should write in order to complete their studies.

KEY:

CT : Certificate Level
IDP : Intermediate Diploma Level
DIP : Diploma Level
HD : High Diploma Level 
SYLLABI AND RECOMMENDED READING

SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
BUSINESS ENGLISH

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to provide those students with communication skills and equip them with a good command of the English Language as well as introduce them to English as used in a business environment.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

To enable the student to:-
a) Present written material using good grammar, vocabulary and style
b) Write basic business documents, letters, memoranda, telegrams, etc.
c) Answer comprehension questions and write summaries of business related material

NB. The examination will be set from a business related context.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Language and Sentence Construction
- Use of verbs, adjectives, pronouns, etc.
- Types of sentences
- Construction of good sentences
- Synthesis
- Linking of sentences
- Punctuation – use of the various forms of punctuation 
- Use of direct and indirect speech
- Abbreviations and terms commonly used in business

Writing Essays
- Paragraph construction
- Writing the essay
- Types of essays

Comprehension and Writing a Summary
- Being able to understand basic business related material 
- How to write a summary, paraphrasing and summarizing of business material

Business Letters
- Various types of letters. For example; enquiry, quotation, order, application and CV, complaint, request for payment

Other Business Documents
- Memos, telegrams, telephone messages, notices, telex, invitations, fax and email. 
- Press advertisements

Listening and Speaking
- Listening and speaking – both face to face and by phone
- The principles of oral comprehension

Communication Process
- Medium, channels and mode of communication 
- Verbal and non-verbal communication
- Feedback, communication breakdown
Report Writing
- Basic report writing including the schematic report

Audio Visual Aids
- Various audio visual aids
- Audio aids
- Visual aids
- Full audio visual aids
- Pitfalls of using Audio Visual Aids

Interviewing 
- Types of interview
- Interviewing techniques
- Don’ts for interviewing

Meetings
- Basic ideas on meetings
- Notice and agenda 
- Minutes

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No.

Topic

Weighting (%)

1

Language and Sentence Construction

10

2

Writing of narratives

8

3

Comprehension and Writing of Summary

10

4

Business Letters

8

5

Other Business Documents

12

6

Listening and Speaking

8

7

Communication Process

10

8

Report Writing

8

9

Audio Visual aids

8

10

Interviewing

8

11

Meetings

10

Total

 

100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

 

Author

Title & Edition

Publisher

City

Mavor W F (1993)

English For Business 3rd Edition

Pitman

London

Mackenzie Ian (2010)

English for Business Studies Student’s Book

Cambridge University

U K

Mackenzie Ian (2010)

A Course for Business Studies and Economic Students 3rd Edition

Cambridge University

U K

Geffner Andrea B (2010)

The Writing Skills You Need for Today’s Workplace

Barron’s Educational Series

New York

Aceituno Armando M (2000)

Business English and Conversations for the EFL-ESL Classroom

Universal Publishers

London

Donna S (2000)

Teaching Business English Cambridge University

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge

Taylor K (2006)

50 Ways to Improve Your Business English Without too Much Effort

Summerton Publishing

Oxford

Emmerson P (2007)

The Business English Handbook

Macmillan ELT

London

Mavor W F (1993)

English for Business 3rd Edition

Pitman

London

Guffey ME (2007)

Business English 11th Edition

Cengage Learning  

London

Useful websites

www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/business
Lots here for teachers and students: advice, vocabulary exercises etc.

www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/controversies-business-english
a lively and relevant discussion site

www.longmanpearsoncom
(1) There are lots of online activities and free resources for learners of business English, fun online activities, downloads of free support materials and helpful tips on learning and teaching. Many other publishers offer similar sites


SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES

BASIC ACCOUNTING

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to teach students to understand generally the role accounting plays in business, and particularly the working of the basic forms of accounting.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

Students should be able to:-
- Understand the concepts on which Accounting is based
- Enter the details of financial transactions which basic accounting plays in business, and particularly the working of the basic forms of accounting
- Prepare an elementary set of financial statements for a sole trader from the accounting records

3. LEARNING CONTENT

The accounting cycle
- The accounting concepts, assets, liabilities, profits

The Ledger
- The double entry principle, grouping of ledger accounts

Books of First Entry
- The use of cash books, various journals
- Petty cash book
- Trial balance and correction of errors
- Errors affecting the trial balance
- Errors not affecting the trial balance
- Revenue and Capital Expenditure

Final Accounts
- Statement of Comprehensive Income (trading, profit and loss) and balance sheet, adjustments to final accounts and basic disposal accounts

Adjustments and Provision
- Year-end adjustments and provisions including Depreciation, Accruals, Stocks, Prepayments, Bad and doubtful debts, discounts
- Bank reconciliation statements
- Control accounts

Manufacturing Accounts
- Preparation of manufacturing accounts

The Suspense Account
- Preparation of suspense account
Departmental Accounts
- Preparation of basic departmental accounts

Incomplete Records
- Preparation of the Opening Statement or Statement of Affairs
- Calculation of missing information
- Introduction to preparation of Final Accounts from incomplete records.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.


No. Topic Weighting (%)
1 Accounting Cycle 10
2 The Ledger 15
3 Books of First Entry 15
4 Final Accounts 10
5 Adjustments and Provision 10
6 Manufacturing Accounts 10
7 The Suspense Accounts 10
8 Departmental Accounts 10
9 Incomplete Records 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Wood F Business Accounting 1 12th ed. Pitman London
Musamba J F Introductory Accounting Vision Publications Mutare
Ramparsad M (2014) Principles of Accounts Made Simple for ‘O’ Level. BM Book Centre Mauritius. 
Siddqui N A (2012) Focus on Principles of Accounts Vol. 2 Directory Publishers Bulawayo.
Chamisa E E (2013) Step Ahead Principles of Bookkeeping and Accounting Vol .1 Longman Harare
Chamisa E E (2013) Step Ahead Principles of Bookkeeping and Accounting Vol .2 Longman. Harare
Makore S(2013) ‘O’ Level Accounts Today, ZPH Harare
Masasi M(2014) Dynamics of Accounts: Principles of ‘O’ Level Accounts College Press Harare



SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
BUSINESS METHODS

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to teach the student to understand his immediate work surroundings, so as to be able to contribute to the work being performed.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

On successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
- understand the various documents used in Business
- understand the clerical work performed in an office
- understand the need for office organisation
- understand the various forms of Domestic Trade
- develop knowledge of the forms of Communications
- understand the various forms of trade
- develop a knowledge and understanding of the financing, organisation and operation of the main types of commercial institutions

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Forms of ownership
- Sole Trader
- Partnerships
- Companies (Private and Public)
- Co-operatives

Office Administration 
- Records and filing

Stock
- Stock purchasing, control, despatch, storage and recording

Cash
- Cash control, recording, safekeeping and banking

Sales
- Sales invoicing (invoices, credit notes and statements)

Credit
- Credit control, forms of credit, procedures

Assets
- Asset control, accommodation, furniture and equipment

Insurance
- The nature of insurance
- How the insurance pool works
- The principles and doctrines of insurance

Advertising
- The nature and functions of advertising
- Types of advertising
- Ethical considerations in advertising

Banking
- Functions of Commercial Banks
- Building Societies
- Merchant Banks
- Discount Companies
- Central Bank

Means of Payment
- Through banks and the Post Office
- Cheques, Money Orders, Postal Orders
- Credit Cards, Automatic teller machines
- Point of sale

The Stock Exchange
- Operations of the exchange
- Parties to the exchange
- Unit trusts and investment trusts

Domestic Trade
- Functions and characteristics of retail trade
- Function and characteristics of the wholesale trade

Transport
- Means of transport
- Road
- Rail
- Sea
- Air
- Factors governing the choice of method

Business Information
- Importance of information in decision making
- Quality of Information
- Quantity of Information
- Value of Information
- Use of computers in business (a basic understanding of what computers are used for)


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Forms of Business Ownership 10
2. Office Administration 10
3. Stock 5
4. Cash 5
5. Sales 5
6. Credit 5
7. Assets 5
8. Insurance 5
9. Advertising 5
10. Banking 10
11. Means of Foreign Payments 5
12. The Stock Exchange 5
13. Transport 5
14. Business Information 10
15. Banking 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Anderson L E(2003) Commerce Around Us (Revised edition) Longman Harare
Makore S (2013) Step Ahead : O’level Commerce Longman Harare 
Matindike, G(2013) Focus on Commerce Vol. 2. College Press Bulawayo 
Manyumwa, C and Mumanyi, O (2011) O’Level Commerce: A Textbook of Commerce ZPH Harare
Fitzmaurice L (2008), Textbook of Commerce Heinemann London
Musamba F(2014) Business Methods: Revision module Visions Publications Harare 
Trigwell-Jones M(2009) 
O Level Commerce Cambridge University Press London
Anderson, Lorna and Lobley, Dereck (1996) Success in Commerce Zimbabwe John Murray/ Academic Books Harare



SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES

1. AIM

This subject aims to develop students’ basic data and mathematical skills further and to prepare them for the future study of Quantitative Techniques.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

- To understand the principles of Algebra.
- To understand and be able to use graphs and diagrams in business situations.
- To introduce basic statistical concepts and probabilities.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Elements of Algebra
- Revise topics covered in Algebra.
- Simple manipulations (multiplying, dividing, adding and subtracting)
- Basic indices
- Fractions in algebra
- Factorisations
- Solving equations
- Substitution
- Change of subject of formula

Algebraic terminology and simple manipulations
- Indices (Laws of Indices)
- Equality and Inequality
- Fractions in algebra (simplification of fractions, multiplication and division of fractions, addition and subtraction of fractions)

Equations
- Linear equations
- Quadratic equations – solving graphically or by formula
- Simultaneous equations

Consumer Mathematics/ Uses of Percentages in Business
- Discounts
- Added Taxes
- Hire purchase interest calculations
- Rates
- Insurance premiums and commissions
- Pricing and profit and loss calculations
- Compound and simple interest

Graphs and Diagrams
- Tables of values
- Plotting graphs
- Straight Line graphs – finding gradient and y intercept
- Pictograms
- Bar Charts
- Pie Charts
- Histograms
- Lorenz Curve
- Interpreting graphs and diagrams (finding mode, median and interquartile range from graphs)

Rounding and Estimating (General Arithmetics)
- Approximations
- Estimates
- Errors – relative and absolute errors

Basic Statistical Concepts
- Tables
- Frequency Polygons
- Cumulative Frequency
- Combining probabilities
- Averages – mean, median and mode (by calculation)

Basic Probabilities
- Define the concept of probability
- Apply the rules of probability
- the addition rule
- multiplication rule
- venn diagrams
- tree diagrams

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.
No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Elements of Algebra 10
2. Algebraic Terminology 5
3. Simple Algebraic manipulations 10
4. Equations 10
5. Consumer Mathematics and Uses of percentages in Business 15
6. Graphs and Diagrams 15
7. Estimation and Approximation 10
8. Basic Statistical Concepts 15
9. Basic probability 10
Total 100


5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Channon J B, et…al (2005) New General Mathematics 3rd & 4th Edition Longman Harare
Mann P S (2013), Introductory Statistics, Student Solutions Manual, 8th Edition Wiley London
Brandimarte P (2011) Quantitative Methods: An Introduction for Business Management, 1st Edition Wiley London
Weiss N A (2011) Introductory Statistics ,9th Edition Pearson Education Edinburgh
Mvundura M(2002), Introduction to Quantitative Techniques: Revision Module, Visions Publications Harare 
DeSanto C and Totoro M(2010) 
Introduction to Statistics,9th Edition Pearson Learning Solutions Edinburgh
Balnaves M and Caputi P(2001) Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach SAGE Publications New Delhi
Willemse, I (2009) Statistical Methods and Calculation Skills 3rd edition Juta Cape Town

 


SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
BUSINESS ECONOMICS

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to introduce students to the basic principles of economics and to consumer and producer behaviour within this environment. Particular emphasis will be placed on the business organisation and how it is related to outside forces.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:
- Explain the basic principles of economics (supply, demand, prices, equilibrium and elasticity)
- Describe consumer tastes, preferences and behaviour in conditions of uncertainty
- Explain producer behaviour
- Explain industrial organisation

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Nature and Scope of Economics
- The economic problem
- Economics as a social science

Economic Systems
- Traditional economies
- Command economies
- Mixed economies
- The role of government

Production
- Production function
- Total, average and marginal product
- Marginal products and diminishing returns
- Factors of Production

Principles of Supply and Demand
- Prices
- Equilibrium
- Elasticity

Consumer Behaviour
- Taste and preference
- Basic utility theory

Industrial Organisation 
- The nature of the firm
- Forms of industrial organisations, sole trader, companies, partnerships, etc.

Labour Economics
- Division of Labour
- Mobility of Labour

Market Structure
- Monopolistic competition
- Perfect competition
- Monopoly
- Oligopoly
- National Income Accounts

Trade
- Inflation
- Terms of Trade
- Balance of Payments
- Economic communities (SADC and PTA)

3. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Nature and scope of Economics 10
2. Economic Systems 10
3. Production 10
4. Principles of Supply and Demand 15
5. Consumer behaviour 10
6. Industrial Organisation 10
7. Factor market 10
8. Market structure 15
9. Trade 10
Total 100

4. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Stanlake G F,
Grant S J (1997) Introductory Economics (6th Edition) Longman London
Sloman, John (2009) Essentials of Economics FT Prentice 
Hall London
Moynitian D T B(2012) Complete Economics for Cambridge IGCSE and ‘O’ Level. Oxford University Press Oxford
Grant S Economics Cambridge IGCSE Cambridge University Press Cambridge
Smit, PC et…al. (1996) Economics: A Southern African Perspective Juta Cape Town
Dransfield, 
Robert et…al. (2010) Economics for IGCSE Nelson 
Thornes London
Titley, Brian & Carrier, Helen (2009)
Economics for Cambridge IGCSE® and ‘O’ Level 
Cambridge University Press Cambridge
Beardshaw, J 
(2001) Economics: A Student’s 
Guide
Longman London



SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
INTRODUCTION TO LAW

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to introduce the general principles of law, to give the students an understanding of the legal system and creation of the Law of Zimbabwe and to provide an understanding of how the law is sourced and administered.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:
- understand the general principles of law
- understand the legal system and creation of the Law of Zimbabwe
- Provide an understanding on how the law is sourced and administered.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Nature of Law
- Meaning and purpose
- Postulates of justice
- Legal rights
- Divisions of Law: -
- Distinguish national and internal law
- Distinguish substantive law and law of procedure
- Distinguish public and private law

The Legal Environment
- Legislature
- Executive
- Judiciary

Zimbabwe Legal System
The structure and jurisdiction of courts
Sources of law: -
- Legislation and Subsidiary legislation
- Custom
- Case law – precedent
- Roman Dutch law
- Arbitration
- Administrative Courts

General Principles of Contracts
- The concepts of contracts
- Formation of contracts
- Offer: -
- Validity of an offer
- Invitation to treat
- Advertisements
- Calling tenders
- Auctions
- Communication of offer
- Termination of offer
- Acceptance: -
- Validity of acceptance
- Necessity of acceptance
- Who may accept
- Knowledge of offer
- Methods of acceptance
- Contracts without offer and acceptance
- Terms of contract
- Voidable contracts
- Void contracts (contracts void ad ignition)
- Breach of contracts and remedies thereof
- Termination of contracts

Delict
- The nature and liability in delict
- Strict liability – liability without fail
- Remedies


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Nature of Law 20
2. The Legal Environment of Business 15
3. The Legal System 20
4. General Principles of Contract 30
5. Delict 15
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Rednolds PWD Introduction to Business Law Pitman London
Reynolds and Russes Introduction of Law Government Printers Harare 
Christie, R.H. (1992) Practical Commercial Law in Zimbabwe. ICSAZ. Harare

Bampton, I. & Drury, D. (1988) An Introduction to Zimbabwean Business Law
Legal Resources Foundation Harare
Gumbo A (2003) , Legal Environment of Business Zimbabwe Open University Harare
Manase, A. J. and Madhuku, L. (1996) A Handbook on Commercial Law in Zimbabwe University of Zimbabwe Harare
Welsh, M. A.(1994) Handbook in Civil Practice Procedure, Legal Resources Foundations Harare
Barnes A J(2012) Law of Business,11th Edition McGraw Hill New York
Kopel, Shaun (2005) Student Guide to Business Law Oxford University Press Oxford


SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

1. AIM

To prepare the student to apply computer skills and understand best practices of using computers for both business and personal use.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

- On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:
- Identify and describe the operation of major hardware units of a computer.
- Distinguish and describe the operation, characteristics and application of input, processing, storage and output devices.
- Identify and describe computer personnel, duties and responsibilities
- Outline the different computer generations and computer types.
- State and describe requirements of a computer room environment.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Hardware
- Computer Architecture
- Major hardware components
- Types of Computer systems, micros, minis, mainframes
- Networked computers
- Types and Trends
- Computer peripherals: input, output and storage devices

Software
- Types of software
- System Software:
- Operating systems
- Programming Language generations
- Language Translator programmes
- Application Software
- Development tools
- Selection and Implementation of Software
- Package versus be-spoke decisions

File Management
- Manager’s view of file and database processing
- Management problems of file processing
- Database Management software
- Logical data elements
- Database structures, database development, database systems and concepts
- Entity relationship model and algebra
- Relational commercial query languages
- Integrity constraints
- Design theories for relational databases
- Move, copy and delete files and folders
- Print management
- Print from an installed printer
- Change default printer from the printer list
- View print jobs and progress
Data Communications and Network Basics
- Network topologies, bus, mesh, star and ring
- Network types LAN, MAN, WAN
- Data sharing in an organisation

Security, Copyright and Legal Aspects
- Security – Data threats, Privacy Act, UPS, Computer Policy
- Computer viruses – the term virus, how viruses are spread, Internet and downloads, Antivirus software
- Copyright – Software copyright rules, legal issues, user licences and software distribution, shareware, freeware, firmware, etc.
- Data Protection Act
- Data Protection Action use
- Implications of Data Protection Act
- Handling of personal data

Computer Ergonomics, Health and Safety
- Computer Laboratory and best practices for good working environment, positioning of screen, chair and keyboard.
- Provision of adequate lighting and ventilation
- Safety standards of cables and power points, Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), eye strain and bad posture

Internet Services
- Basic Internet concepts and its main uses
- Economics of Internet use and email services
- Distinction between Internet and World Wide Web
- Uses of email, requirements to send and receive email

Word Processing
- Load a program from hard disk
- Create a new document
- Enter text
- Insert text
- Copy text
- Delete
- Move text
- Replace text
- Mail merge
- Change line spacing
- Underline
- Change margins
- Centre
- Obtain different fonts
- Embolden
- Justify margins
- Search and replace
- Page numbers

Spreadsheet Package
- Load the program
- Creating a spreadsheet
- Cursor manipulation
- Using the help facility
- Entering labels
- Apply / replicate formulae
- Insert columns and rows, delete columns and rows
- Save the spreadsheet (file)
- Manipulation function key
- Print spreadsheet or specified window
- Retrieve spreadsheet

Database Package
- Load program
- Set up files containing alphabetic and numeric fields within the record
- Enter data
- Add records, delete records
- Edit records
- Sort records by a key field
- Search records by a key field
- Print selected fields
- Search on more than one criteria, produce print outs

Presentation Package
- Load a presentation program
- Create a new slide
- Edit a slide
- Add new slides
- Create a slide show
- Move around slides, delete and edit layout
- Work with Master Slide

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Hardware aspects 10
2. Software aspects 10
3. File Management 10
4. Data Communication and Networks 10
5. Security, Copyrights and Legal aspects 10
6. Computer Ergonomics, Health and Safety 5
7. Internet Services 5
8. Word Processing 10
9. Spreadsheet packages 10
10. Database concepts 10
11. Presentation Packages 10
Total 100


5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Morley D & Parker C S (2013) Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow 14th Edition Cengage London
Stair Reynolds & Chesney T (2012) Fundamentals of Business Information Systems 2nd Edition Cengage Course Technology London
O Brien J A & Marakas G M (2010) Introduction to Information Systems 15th Edition McGraw Hill/Irwin Chicago 
Laudon KC, Laudon JP (2014) Management Information Systems/ Managing the Digital Firm 13th Edition Prentice Hall New York
Rukanda Whisper (2005) Information Technology Visions Publications Harare
Oz Effy (2008) Management Information Systems 6th Edition Cengage London
Rajaraman V (2009) Introduction to Information Technology 2nd Edition PHI Learning New Delhi
Long L (1996) Introduction to Computers and Information Systems 5th Edition Prentice Hall New Jersey



SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
NATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES

1. AIM

To inculcate commitment to National development, promote harmony, national unity and to instil and cultivate an appreciation of National heritage and achievements.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:
Explain the major events in Zimbabwe’s history their significance and implications.
- Explain the law making process, the role of the constitution and demonstrate an understanding of the legal framework in Zimbabwe.
- Identify major players in International Relations and explain their role in development.
- Demonstrate an awareness of the impact of regional and international relations on Zimbabwe’s social, economic and political developments
- Define, explain and analyse various entrepreneurial or business concepts
- Demonstrate knowledge of ethical business approach, culture and ideas
- Identify, analyse and solve indigenous business problems with indigenous solutions
- State and articulate Zimbabwe’s interests, cultural and heritage values and identify with the same.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Section A

Definition of National and Strategic Studies
- Patriotism and mobilisation for development
- Purpose of subject – National Harmony and Unity
- Afrocentric view of history versus the Euro-centric view

Development of Zimbabwean Societies
Important features in the pre-colonial societies in relation to conflict and co-existence, trade, government and their value
- Stone age
- Great Zimbabwe
- Mutapa State
- Rozvi State
- Ndebele State

Background of Colonial History
- Impact of the Arab trade in the East and Arab Slave trade
- Impact of European slavery and plunder in Africa.

Colonial History
- The role of the early missionaries and scientific and philanthropic expeditions as a foundation to colonisation.

Scramble and Partition of Southern Africa
- The implications of the Berlin Conference
- Events leading to the Occupation of Zimbabwe by the B.S.A company and Cecil John Rhodes


Company Occupation and Intrigues in Zimbabwe 1894 - 1923
- Explain the BSAC’s occupation of Zimbabwe

Colonisation and Early Resistance in Colonial Zimbabwe up to 1923
- Suppressive acts enacted by the BSAC to consolidate its rule during the early years of settler-colonisation.
- Causes of The First Chimurenga War its prosecution and identification of heroes
- The effects of land appropriation, the creation of tribal trust lands, hut taxes, racial segregation and the apartheid system’s effect on education, health and cultural dissemination.

African Nationalism (1923 – 1965): - 
- The causes of the rise in African Nationalism and Trade Unionism
- Politics of protest and the rise of African Independent Churches
- Formation of the Federation and the causes of its collapse
Reformist pressure politics (1953 – 1965)
- The development of early political parties and the path to the formation of ZAPU and ZANU
- National grievances, the impact of the UDI and its effects in influencing the decision for the armed struggle option.
Armed Struggle (1966 – 1980)
- Causes of the Second Chimurenga war
- Geneva talks (1975)
- Discuss the HMS Fearless, HMS Tiger and Lancaster Talks

Constitution of Zimbabwe and Law making process
- Major provisions of the Lancaster Agreement and its restrictive nature

Independent Zimbabwe (1980): - 
- Discuss the 1980 Elections and their outcome
- Policy on reconciliation, education, health, defence
- Analyse the Apartheid South Africa’s destabilisation and its sponsoring of RENAMO, UNITA
- Analyse the Dissident problem in Zimbabwe and subsequent response

National Unity and the ‘Status Quo’ decade (1987 – 1998): - 
- Explain the policy of reconciliation and the consolidation of national unity in Zimbabwe
- Discuss “Willing seller willing buyer” policy on land and International acceptance
- Analyse Structural adjustment policy and effects of the IMF / WE conditionalities
- Discuss the Land Conference of 1998, the issues, commitments, facts, fiction and falsehooods involved.

The 2000 Elections and The Third Chimurenga: - 
- Critique the international reaction to the righting of historical wrongs
- Explain Black empowerment and the role of the following organisations: AAG, IBDC, ZNCC, OMA, IBWO, etc
- Analyse western “Racist reaction and internal collaboration” during the Third Chimurenga
- Agrarian Reforms
- Constitutional reviews

Cultural Heritage: - 
- Indigenous Value Systems / Norms in terms of society religion, family (extended family and tribal extensions) their congruence and divergence with Western and other systems.

National Heritage: - 
- Identify Zimbabwe’s Natural Resources – land (tenure and ownership) minerals, (geographical spread and ownership) flora and fauna.
- Relate Zimbabwe’s indigenous knowledge systems – social, economic, political and scientific to modern science and their efficacy, complimentality, congruence
National Interests: - 
- National Vision – Zimbabwe’s national vision in terms of the Ethos, Aspirations and Objectives of the Second Chimurenga War
- National symbols, their purpose and meaning
- Discuss the National Flag, Anthem and Emblems (coat of arms)

Civic Responsibilities: - 
- Definition of Civic Responsibility
- Articulation of the following concepts as they relate to civic responsibility:
Responsible Citizenship
- Defend the Nation
- Positive publicity
- Supporting the nation through tax
- Conserving nation’s resources through HIV safe practices and environmental friendly practices in mining agriculture industry, etc
- Participating readily and quickly when disasters occur
- Gender and Development
- Community participation

Section B

Legal and Parliamentary Studies: - 
- Definition of Law, its origins and purpose
- Pre-colonial legal systems and compare them to modern law
- Law enforcement, justice and public order
- The Constitution of Zimbabwe
- The Lancaster House Agreement
- Major provisions of the Lancaster Agreement
- The provisions of the Constitution of Zimbabwe in relation to:
- Republican Destiny
- Citizenship
- Declaration of Rights and Freedoms of Individuals
- Constitutional amendments
- Elections – gubernatorial, presidential and local government
• The Executive
- President and Cabinet
- The Role of the President
- Presidential Powers (Temporary Provisions)
- Qualification, Election and Tenure
• The Legislature
- Types of Parliamentary Representation – Uni, Bi, Tri – Cameral Systems
- Membership
- Administrative Structures e.g. the Clerk of Parliament, etc
- The Law Making Process
- Acts of Parliament and Statutory Instruments
- Parliamentary Procedures
- Parliamentary Committees
- The Budget System
- Commissions
• Judiciary
- The Role of the Judiciary
- Concept of Judicial impartiality
- Court Structure in Zimbabwe
- The Supreme Court / The High Court / Magistrate’s Court / Community Courts / Traditional Court

Governance and Democracy
- Election Boards

Section C

Regional and International Relations: -

Definition of International Relations
- Assessment of Zimbabwe’s Foreign policy
- The three Cs of International relations – Conflict, Co-operation and Competition
- Global Power balances – multi-polar, bi-polar and uni-polar
- Review international law and the community of nations
- types and functions of diplomatic missions
- Democracy and Human Rights
- International Co-operation: -
- SADC
- AU
- United Nations
- Peace-keeping assignments and Zimbabwe’s military campaigns

Regionalism: - 
- Logic and development of regionalism
- Composition and purpose, and functions of major regional organisations (SADC, COMESA, PTA, ECOWAS, AU, EU, ASEAN, NAFTA)

Public International Organisations
- Purpose, role, structure and functions of the United Nations and trace its origins, successes and failures.
- Functions and structure of the major UN agencies – UNESCO, UNHCR, WHO, UNDP and UNICEF
- Role played by governmental aid agencies – Usaid, Norad, Cida, Sida, etc

Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) – National and International
- Major NGOs in Zimbabwe and their functions, purposes and their relationships with the host Government.
- The role of NGOs as lobby groups in home countries and as ‘front organisations’ in host countries.
- Effect of NGOs and their contribution in development; cultural imperialism and the dependency syndrome.

International Trade
- Balance of payment
- Balance of trade
- Foreign exchange
- Exchange rate

The Media
- Definition of Media, its role and functions
- Freedom of expression
- Freedom of Association within the context of Media Freedom and the exploitation of these:
freedoms for subversive purposes by the enemies of the state
- Self-censorship of the media and compare the behaviour of Zimbabwe’s media to that of other countries
- The role of the foreign media in shaping perceptions and influencing political processes in modern politics
- Definition of perceptions and its relationship to the adage “the battle is not lost on the battlefield but in the mind”.


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Introductory Concepts 5
2. Development of Zimbabwean Society 10
3. Background of Colonial History 10
4. Colonial History 5
5. Scramble for Africa 5
6. BSA Co. Occupation 5
7. Zimbabwe: 1894-1923 10
8. Colonisation and early resistance 10
9. African Colonialism (1923-1955) 10
10. Constitutionalism in Zimbabwe 5
11. Law making process in Zimbabwe 5
12. Independent Zimbabwe: 1980 - 10
13. National Unity: 987-1998 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Machingaidze E 1890 to Independence 
Mudenge P Munhumutapa to 1890 
Nabudere D The Political Economy of Imperialism: its Theoretical and Polemical Treatment from Mercantilist to Multilateral Imperialism Zed Press London
Todaro P Development Economics, 11th Edition Pearson Education Limited Harlow, Essex. 
Rodin W How Europe Underdeveloped Africa 
Stiglitz J Globalisation and its discontents W. W. Norton New York
McGuckin F Business for Beginners (A sample by step guide on how to start your business) Eastleigh Publications Philadelphia
Scarborough N M and Zimmerer T W Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management 2nd Edition Pearson Education, Limited Harlow, Essex.
Martin D and Johnson P The struggle for Zimbabwe African Publishing group Harare
Beach D N(1994) A Zimbabwean Past Mambo Press Gweru 
Beech D N (1984) Zimbabwe before law Mambo press Gweru 
Mudenge S G (2011) A Political History of Munhumutapa (1400-1902) African Publishing group Harare


SYLLABI – IBAS CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to develop a culture of entrepreneurship in students and equip them with knowledge and skills to start and run business enterprises.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:
- Analyse the causes and origins of the employment syndrome of indigenous Zimbabweans
- Assess the need to create employment for self and others as a first priority after graduation
- Generate a business idea and develop a viable business plan
- Analyse and choose the most suitable form of business specific to one’s area of skills specialisation.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Business Environment in Zimbabwe
- History and culture of business patterns and operations in Zimbabwe and their impact on the environment
- Analyse the employment ‘syndrome of indigenous’ Zimbabweans
- The macro and micro environment factors affecting entrepreneurship in Zimbabwe

Concept of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development
- Definitions and theories of Entrepreneurship
- Types of Entrepreneurship
- Concepts of Sustainable Entrepreneurship
- Forms of Business Ownership
- Roles and challenges of Sustainable Entrepreneurship
- Procedures in the establishment of various business forms

Business Management
- The Role of Management in a business e.g. planning, organising, leading and controlling
- Motivation: Content and Process Theories

Business Planning
- Generation and Evaluation of a business idea and proposal
- The elements of a business plan
- Mainstreaming environmental management strategies in the business plan
- Using business proposal and plan as well as environmental management strategies developed under Business Environment in Zimbabwe.

Customer Care
- Principles of good customer care

Costing and Pricing
- Approaches to the costing and pricing of products and services

Accounting and Finance
- Record keeping and stock control in a business
- Business documents
- Interpretation and application of basic financial statements
- Sources of business finance
- Business capital structure and the concept of capital gearing
- Liquidity and profitability ratios in business
- Approaches to the costing and pricing of products and services

Marketing
- Definition and role of marketing
- Marketing mix strategies
- Marketing plan for a business
- Principles of customer care
- E-commerce
- Green marketing strategies

Business Growth Strategies
- Integrative strategies
- Diversification
- Mergers and takeovers
- Models e.g. BCG and Ansoff
- Impact of business growth strategies on the environment

Legal Requirements
- Legal requirements applicable to business in Zimbabwe
- TAX, VAT, PAYE, NSSA contribution
- Labour legislation
- Collective bargaining
- Contracts
- Employment
- General contracts
- Purchase and sale contracts
- Lease contracts
- Insolvency
- Voluntary and Involuntary

- Environmental Regulations
- Environmental Management Act
- NSSA Factory Act

Risk Management
- Definitions and types of risks faced by a business
- Property risk
- Financial risk
- Personal risk
- Employee liability risk
- Environmental risk
- Importance of risk management

Risk management strategies
- Retention
- Transfer
- Group cover
- Individual cover

Business Ethics
- Business social responsibility in relation to
- Pollution
- Society / community
- Fiduciary / investors
- Customer and employee responsibilities

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Business Environment 5
2. Entrepreneurship and Sustainable development 10
3. Business Management 10
4. Business Planning 10
5. Customer Care 10
6. Costing and pricing 10
7. Accounting and Finance 10
8. Marketing 10
9. Business Growth Strategy 5
10. Legal requirements 5
11. Risk Management 10
12. Business Ethics 5
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Lawrence Annet Weber James (2005) Business and Society 11th Edition McGraw-Hill New York
Westhead Paul (2006) Entrepreneurship Prentice Hall 
Westhead Paul (2006) Financial Times Prentice hall 
Kuratko D F and Hodgetts R M (2004) Entrepreneurship Dryden London
Kuratko D F and Hodgetts R M (2004) A Contemporary Approach Dryden London
Longenecker –Moore-Petty (2003) Small Business Management Thomson 
Longenecker –Moore-Petty (2003) An Entrepreneurical Emphasis 12th Edition Thomson 
Hirsch R D and Peters M P (2005) Entrepreneurship 6th Edition TATA McGraw Hill
Baron Robert A Shane Scott A (2005) Entrepreneurship Thomson South Western 
Baron Robert A Shane Scott A (2005) A Process Perspective Thomson South Western
Strokes D (1995) Small Business Management Letts Educational London
Strokes D (1995) An active-learning approach Letts Educational London
Murray E (2014) Entrepreneurship in Zimbabwe 
Greene C L (2006) Entrepreneurship Cengage Learning New Delhi



SYLLABI – IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to address the need for a Business Executive to be knowledgeable and competent in dealing with the communication challenges faced by today’s organisations.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the scope of the various forms of communication and their uses in business.
- Choose the right media and channels for use in different communication situations.
- Write business documents that are able to pass and be effective in the business environment.
- Understand the impact of communication in the strategy of a business.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Communication Theory
- Basic concepts of the communication process and barriers 
- How to structure communication for the particular audience and the situation and how to analyse and evaluate its success
- Selection of the most suitable media from the alternatives available 
- Use of Verbal and Non-verbal communication.

Communication in an Organisation
- Introduction to organization structures including line, staff and matrix. 
- Appropriate techniques for communication within the formal and informal structures – to the hierarchy along lateral lines and the “grapevine” 
- Importance of written policy and procedures
- Culture and its influence on communication

Written Communication
- The ability to use correct and concise English in business communications and to demonstrate the skills of description, persuasion and evaluation
- The preparation of any communication types including memoranda, letters, circulars, reports, instructions, advertisements, questionnaires, press releases, articles and proposals. 
- The theory and practice of speech writing

Messages
- The use of e-mail, and the internet, effect of these on communication in organizations
- An understanding of the e-mail and its management in today’s communication process 
- Impact of Personal computers on communication

Oral Communication
- Interpersonal and intrapersonal communications 
- The techniques of effective interviewing 
- Speaking to individuals in formal and non-formal groups
- The advantages and disadvantages of oral communications 
- Principles of good listening and barriers to effective listening 
- Negotiating techniques

Meetings
- Notices and agenda – Drafting a Notice and Agenda – important points to note
- Minutes – The writing of minutes
- Valid Meetings – What constitutes valid meetings?
- Role of Chairman and Secretary – The activities that must be carried out by the Chairman and Secretary before and after the meeting

Types of Meetings
- Annual General Meeting
- Extraordinary General Meeting
- Ad Hoc Meetings

Motions
- The drafting of motions for the meetings

Resolutions 
- The proper recording and phrasing of resolutions

Graphic Communication
- The various types of Graphic communication
- Purposes of graphic devices
- An introduction to measures of location – means, medians and modes – and sampling
- The presentation of numerical data, trends and moving averages by means of graphs, charts and diagrams suitable for reports (Correct drawing instruments must be used)
- Suitability of graphic communication

Audio Visual Aids
- Various audio and visual aids in use and appropriate security
- Design of systems including classification for retrieval and updating information
- The use of Audio and Visual Aids and important considerations to remember when using these devices


NOTE:
Students intending to attempt the graphic communication question must equip themselves with a compass, ruler, eraser, protractor, coloured pencils and a lead pencil.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Communication Theory 10
2. Communication in Organisations 10
3. Written Communication 10
4. Messages 5
5. Oral Communication 5
6. Meetings 10
7. Motions 5
8. Resolutions 5
9. Non-verbal Communication 10
10. Graphic Communication 5
11. Audio Visual Aids 10
12. Communication Media 10
13. Barriers to Communication 5
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Adey AD & Andrew M G (1996) Getting it Right Juta Academic Cape Town
Adey AD & Andrew M G (1996) The Manager’s Guide to Business Communication Juta Academic Cape Town
Cleary Sandra et… (2007) Communication A Hands on Approach Juta Cape Town
Fielding Michael (2005) Effective Communication in Organizations Juta Cape Town
Fielding Michael (2005) Preparing Messages that Communicate 3rd Edition Juta Cape Town
Guffey Mary Ellen & Loewy Dana (2012) Essentials of Business Communication 9th Edition Cengage learning London
Krizan AC et….al (2010) Business communication 8th Edition Cengage learning London
Thill John V & Bovee Courtland V (2012) Excellence in Business Communication Prentice Hall London
Locker Kitty O & kaczmarek Stephen Kyo (2007) Business Communication MacGraw Hill New York
Locker Kitty O & kaczmarek Stephen Kyo (2007) Building Critical Skills 3rd Edition MacGraw Hill New York
Taylor Shirley (2005) Communication for Business Pearson Harlow Essex
Taylor Shirley (2005) A Practical Approach Pearson Harlow Essex


SYLLABI – IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to introduce the student to the subject of Accounting and provide an understanding of the role of the discipline in the running of the organisation.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this subject the student will be able to:
- Understand the basic Financial Accounting principles and their applications.
- Prepare simple books of accounts for sole traders and non-profit making organisations.
- Make necessary correction of errors and prepare financial statements from incomplete records.
- Prepare financial statements for sole traders and non trading organisations.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Double Entry System
- Accounting theory
- Concepts and accounting for capital, assets, liabilities, expenses and income including the accounting equation
- Approaches to double entry principle

Books of Original Entry
- Writing up and construction of journals, sales day books, purchase journals, bills books, returns inwards and returns outwards books suitable for various business enterprises, and the journal proper from primary documents e.g. invoices and receipts
- Transferring of the relevant amounts to the ledger

The Ledger
- The ledger as a summary of all transactions undertaken by a business during a particular period, including balances from previous periods 
- Direct entries to the ledger and entries using books of original entry
- Use of folio numbers to cross-reference accounts
- Balancing of ledger accounts including the cash book
- The trial balance and suspense accounts

Cash Accounting
- Writing up and adjustment of cash books (including petty cash book)
- Trade discount and cash discount
- Bank reconciliation statements, including treatment of unpaid cheques, post-dated cheques, bank charges, transfers and contra entries and errors

Matching concept
- Matching revenue and expenditure – accruals and prepayments of income and expenses
- Accounting for assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses in proper accounting period
- Year-end adjustment including stock shortages
- Various methods of providing for and calculating provision for depreciation on fixed assets – straight-line, reducing balance, revaluation, and sum-of-digits
- Provision for bad debts and discounts

Valuation of Assets
- Inventory valuation, First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)
- Simple and weighted average methods of inventory valuation 
- Article and Category methods
- Lower of cost and net realizable value rule
- Valuation of imported goods rules: “in bonds” sales at reduced mark-ups
- Goods on sale or return
- Cut-off dates for stocktaking

Partnerships
- Simple partnership accounts
- Preparation of Capital and Current Accounts, Profit and Loss 
- Appropriation Account and Balance Sheet

Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements
- Preparation and presentation of Manufacturing, Trading, Profit and Loss Accounts and Balance Sheets of sole traders in acceptable presentation form in accordance with the Relevant Accounting Standards.
- Financial statements for non-trading organizations including the Receipts and Payments, income statement and balance sheet.
- Treatment of post Trial Balance adjustments including asset disposal accounts.

Control Accounts
- Purpose of control accounts
- Writing up and reconciliation of debtors and creditors control accounts and agreement with debtors and creditors ledger balance

Correction of Errors
- Identification of and treatment of errors which are not reflected in the trial balance
- Errors which result in a difference in the trial balance
- Use of suspense accounts at elementary level, to account for differences in the trial balance

Reconciliations
- Debtors and creditors statements
- Remittance advices
- Bank Reconciliation Statements

Departmental Accounts
- Presentation of departmental financial statements (Manufacturing, Trading and Profit and Loss Accounts); inter-departmental transfers, allocation and apportionment of expenses

New Developments in Accounting Systems
- Extended (multi-column) cash books and specialized journal 
- Computerised accounts

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Double entry system 10
2. Books of original entry 10
3. The Ledger 10
4. Cash Accounting 5
5. Matching Concept 5
6. Valuation of Assets 5
7. Partnerships 10
8. Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements 10
9. Control Accounts 5
10. Errors in Accounting and correction of errors 5
11. Reconciliations 5
12. Departmental Accounts 10
13. Developments in the Accounting systems 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Dempsey A et…al (2011) Introduction to Financial Accounting 8th edition LexisNexis Durban
Wood frank Sangster Alan (2013) Business Accounting 1 12th Edition Prentice hall London
Wood frank Sangster Alan (2012) Frank Wood’s Business Accounting 2 12th Edition Pearson London
Kew J & Watson A (2012) Financial Accounting Oxford University Press Oxford
Kew J & Watson A (2012) An introduction 4th Edition Oxford University Press Oxford
Musamba J F (2001) Introductory Accounting 3rd Edition N G Publications Harare
Harrison Walter T et…al (2012) Financial Accounting 9th Edition Prentice hall London
Kothar Jagdish & Barone Elisabelt (2006) Financial Accounting Prentice Hall London
Kothar Jagdish & Barone Elisabelt (2006 An International Approach Prentice Hall London
International Accounting Standards Board (2012) International Financial Reporting Standards International Accounting Standards Board U K


SYLLABI – IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

1. AIM

This subject aims to introduce and develop students in aspects of Administration and Management.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

On successful completion of this subject, students should be able to:
- Describe and construct an organisation chart;
- Explain how organisation charts expedite effective management and decision-making
- Explain the decision-making process;
- Describe the various components of effective management;
- Describe the personnel function and its importance to an organisation;
- Describe the relevance of information systems to management decision-making
- Relate the industrial bargaining process to the smooth functioning of a business.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Business Organization
- Types of Business Organizations
- Role of the entrepreneur sole trader, partnership, co-operative
- Public and Private Companies
- Public Corporation
- Advantages and Disadvantages

Organization of a Business
- Purpose of organisation and methods
- The distribution channel
- Organisational structures; classical management theory
- Theory of bureaucracy, scientific management
(Students should be able to explain what an organisational chart is, what it is used for; and be able to draw up a chart for the organisation that he or she works for)

Introduction to Management
- Definitions of Administration and Management Principles and Practice of Management Communication in business

Delegation
- Benefits of delegation
- Barriers to delegation

Functional Areas of Management
- Marketing Function, Production Function, Accounting and Finance, Human Resources Function
- Planning, leading, organising, controlling
- Styles, Traits and Skills of Leaders
- Motivation theories
- Levels of Management, Teams


Personnel
- Recruitment, induction, training and motivation
- Remuneration
- Organisational culture

Industrial Relations
- Role of Trade Unions, Collective bargaining agreements, Mediation, Arbitration

Management Information Systems
- The difference between data and information
- Nature of information
- Information as an aid to planning, organizing, controlling and decision making
- Use of computers in M.I.S.
- Basic electronic 
- decision support systems
- on line and real time
- end user computing
- Problems in implementing a computer based M.I.S.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Business Organisation 10
2. Organisation of Business 10
3. Introduction to Management 15
4. Delegation 10
5. Functional Areas of Management 25
6. Personnel Management 10
7. Industrial Relations 10
8. Management Information System 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Appleby Robert C (1994) Modern Business Administration Pitman London
Thuis Peter & Stuive Rienk (2014) Business Administration Routledge London
Ferreira E J et… (2009) Administrative Management 2nd Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Danks S (2001) Advanced Level Business Studies 3rd Edition Letts Educational London
Betts P W Supervisory studies A Managerial Perspective Pitman Publishing London
Ryan J and Richards J Business Studies Today University of Cambridge Cambridge
Denyer J C Office Management Macdonald & Evans Ltd London
Jewell Bruce (2000) Integrated Approach to Business Studies Harlow essex


SYLLABI – IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES

1. AIM

The aim of the subject is to expose the student and to assess competency in the Quantitative Techniques which are applied in solving business related problems.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student should be able to:
- Understand the mathematical and statistical techniques which are useful for business applications
- Apply the Quantitative Techniques to solve business problems
- Interpret statistical data for business applications

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Defining statistics and its use in business.

Collection and presentation of numerical information
- Questionnaires, interviews, tabulation analysis and interpretations

Data Description
- Graphical displays, bar graphs (multiple, component), pie charts, pictograms, line graphs, lorenze curves, stem and leaf diagrams, pictorial presentations, moving totals and averages
- Measures of Centrality – mean, medium, weighted mean, mode
- Measures of Spread – for grouped and ungrouped data – variance, standard deviation, range quartiles, percentiles, interquartile range, box and wisker plot
- Frequency Distributions – histograms, polygon, ogives, skewness
- The elimination of common errors
- Approximations and their limitations

Business Calculations:
- Use of annuity tables, sinking fund schedules, simple and compound interest, elementary insurance calculations

Correlation and regression analysis:
- Correlation coefficient, scatter graphs, cross tabulation tables, simple linear regression, multiple correlation coefficient 
- Regression analysis 
- Interpretation of parameters

Probability
- A basic introduction to probability from a practical viewpoint. Equally likely outcomes, combinations of events, union of events, conditional probability, mutually exclusive events, venn diagrams, probability trees, conditional probability, normal distribution.
- Binomial distribution, Poison distribution and proportions, Testing a hypothesis for small and large samples and confidence intervals, types of errors, power of test.

Sampling
- Methods of sampling, samples, populations
- Parameters and statistics
- Sampling distributions
- Estimating population means and proportions
- Testing a hypothesis

Index Numbers
- Problems involved in their use, price relative methods, aggregative methods
- Laspeyre and Paasche indices retail price index, index construction and interpretation

Time Series Analysis
- Trends, moving averages, seasonal variations, random variations, exponential smoothing and simple forecasting. De-seasonalising a time series
- Official sources of economic and business data
- The National Income and Expenditure Accounts
- Censuses of population, production, distribution
- Manpower earnings, cost of living, capital formation, trade returns and balance of payments

NOTE:
Students will be provided with the necessary tables.
Students may make use of hand-held, self-powered, silent, non-programmable calculators, but intermediate working steps must be shown.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Collection and Presentation of Data 15
2. Data Descriptions 15
3. Business Calculations 10
4. Correlations and Regression 15
5. Probability 10
6. Sampling 15
7. Index Numbers 10
8. Time Series Analysis 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Chimedza C (2005) Quantitative Techniques Visions Publications Harare 
Francis Andre (2008) Business Mathematics and Statistics 6th Edition South Western and Cengage Learning London
Rees D G (2001)
Essential Statistics 4th Edition Chapman & Hall London
Wegner Trevor (2012) Applied Business statistics 3rd Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Lucey Terry (1996) Quantitative Techniques DP Publications London
Donnelly Robert A (2013) Business Statistics Pearson Boston
Harper W M (2000) Statistics (6th Rev Ed.) Pearson Education Boston
Spiegel Murray R & Stephens Larry J (2011) Statistics McGraw-Hill New York London



SYLLABI - IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

1. AIM
The aim of this subject is to provide a conceptual framework and practical application of Information Communication Technology to organisational situations; and assess the knowledge and skills necessary for a manager to function in an Information Technology driven economy / business.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the impact of Information Technology on business
- Evaluate the organisation’s Information Technology requirements and make appropriate decisions
- Identify and use the sources of information for the organisation
- Use Information Technology, to leverage competitive advantage and deliver knowledge to the organisation’s requirements

Pre-requisite Learning
Practical Evidence of assessed pre-requisite knowledge and understanding at ‘A’ Level, or those of equivalent qualifications which have been approved as meeting the Institute’s requirements must be demonstrated.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

FOUNDATION CONCEPTS
Information Systems: (IS)
- What is an IS? 
- Distinguishing between IT and IS
- System concepts
- IS components
- IS resources
- IS types
- Classes of Information Systems

Information Technology
- Motivation factors, attributes of information, management information, systems theory, data systems and users

Business Management Information
- Business organizations, business information, management information, management information systems

TECHNOLOGY
Introduction to Computer Hardware
- Computer architecture, major hardware components and types of software
- Types of computer systems: micros, minis, mainframes, networked computers
- types and trends
- computer peripherals: input, output, storage devices

Introduction to Computer Software
- Systems software: operating systems, programming language generations, language translator programs
- Applications software: development tools, selection and implementation of software, package versus bespoke decisions
Introduction to Database Management
- Manager’s view of file and database processing, management problems of file processing, database Management software, logical data elements, database structures, database development, database systems and concepts
- Entity-relationship model
- Relational model and algebra
- Relational commercial query languages
- Integrity constraints
- Design theories for relational databases

Introduction to Telecommunication Technology
- Applications of telecommunications; technical telecommunication alternatives: media, processors, software, network, topologies, architectures and protocols, communications channel characteristics.

APPLICATIONS
Information Systems in Business Management
- Information Systems for business operations
- Information Systems and management
- Information Systems and decision making
- Strategic roles of Information Systems
- Information systems for leveraging competitive advantage

End User Computing and Office Automation
- End user computing: components, resources, applications, management implications
- Office automation: word processing, desktop publishing, image processing, computer graphics, multimedia presentations, management implications

Transaction Processing and Business Information Systems
- Transaction processing systems: batch processing, real-time processing
- Business information systems: marketing information systems, manufacturing information systems, human resource information systems, accounting information systems, financial information systems, and process control systems.

Managerial Information and Support Systems
- Executive information and decision support systems
- Artificial intelligence and expert systems

DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Developing Information Systems Solutions
- Systems development cycle: investigation, analysis, design, computer aided system engineering, prototyping, implementation, testing, evaluating hardware, software, services
- System development tools: system flowcharts, data flow diagrams, case tools

Managing Information Technology
- Information resource management: strategic management, functional management, resource management, technology management, distributed management, information technology management, business and information technology strategies, business and Information technology applications, information technology platforms.

Security and Ethical Challenges of Information Technology
- Information system controls, procedural controls, physical facility controls, auditing
- Information security policy and information security standards,
- Ethical and social dimensions of information technology,
- Computer crime, and health issues.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Foundation Concepts 20
2. Technology 35
3. Application 25
4. Development 20
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Morley D & Parker C S (2013) Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow 14th Edition Cengage London 
Stair Reynolds & Chesney T (2012) Fundamentals of Business Information Systems 2nd Edition Cengage Course Technology London 
O Brien J A & Marakas G M (2010) Introduction to Information Systems 15th Edition McGraw Hill/Irwin Chicago
Laudon KC, Laudon JP (2014) Management Information Systems 
Laudon KC, Laudon JP (2014) Managing the Digital Firm 13th Edition 
Rukanda Whisper (2005) Information Technology Visions Publications Harare
Oz Effy (2008) Management of Information Systems 6th Edition Cengage London
Rajaraman V (2009) Introduction to Information Technology 2nd Edition PHI Learning New Delhi
Long L (1996) INTRODUCTION TO Computers and Information Systems 
5th Edition Prentice Hall New Jersey



SYLLABI - IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
BUSINESS LAW

1. AIM
The aim of the subject is to create an understanding of the processes of Zimbabwean law, rather than the theories, which impinge on business.

2. Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the nature of law
- Know the sources of law
- Have a basic understanding of the law relating to:
- Delict
- Contract
- Partnership and companies
- Agency
- Debt collection
- Carriage of goods

3. LEARNING CONTENT

The Nature of Law
- the relationship of and distinction between common law, statute law and customary law;
- stare decisis;
- obiter dictum;
- ratio decidend.

An outline of selected areas of Business Law
General Principles of Contract

Specific Contracts
- Specific Contracts
- requirements for the formation of a contract of sale
- the duties of the seller
- the duties of the purchaser
- transfer of ownership

- Contracts of Lease
- definition of a lease
- duties of the lessor
- duties of the lessee
- the hypothec of the lessor
- termination of contracts of lease

- Agency and Authority
- Formation of agency
- The effect of agency
- Liability of the agent
- Types of agent
- Termination of Authority

Special Contracts
- Delict
- Definition
- Remedies
- Responsibility of employers for the defects of employees.

- Partnerships and Companies
- Formation
- Dissolution of Partnerships 
- Differences between partnerships and companies

- Debt Collection
- Instructing the lawyer
- Summons
- Default judgement, Judgement and Provisional Sentence
- Writ of Execution
- Civil imprisonment
- The small claims court

- Carriage of Goods
- The common law position
- The position under the consumer contracts Act No. 6 of 1994
- Taking note of the existence of other related statutes.

Introduction to Business Law
- The nature of the State
- Three arms of the State – nature; roles and how they are related to reach other
- The balance of power / separation of powers principle
- The nature of the law; divisions of the law, types of the law, and administration of the law
- The relationship between business and the law
- Forms / types of business enterprises
- What are the purposes of law?
- The sources of law – legislation, delegated legislation, common law, judicial precedent, authoritative texts and customs
- The Zimbabwean Legal System
- What is a court system / hierarchy?
- An illustration of the Zimbabwean court structures – ordinary courts
- Specialist Courts – difference from ordinary courts and how they relate to the hierarchy
- The concept of jurisdiction
- Nature of and types of jurisdiction
- Various jurisdictions of the ordinary courts and specialist courts
- Nature of procedural remedies – reviews and appeals (bases and action)
- Distinction between criminal and civil wrongs
- Actioning of civil wrongs – causes of action and seeking remedies / recourse
- Concept of delict – definition, examples, essential elements and application
- Introduction to credit litigation or debt collection – nature and process of debt collection at the courts and involvement of the lawyers, parties involved and enforcement of court judgements
- Business / commercial dispute resolution – litigation, arbitration, negotiation

Principles of Contract law
- The nature of a contract
- Differences between a contract and social agreement
- Validity of a contract – essentials of a valid contract
- Formation of a contract
- Rules applicable to offer and acceptance
- Point at which a valid contract is entered into – various ways of acceptance
- Concepts of void and voidable contracts
- Aspects of duress, undue influence, mistake and misrepresentation
- Nature of conditions under contracts – conditions precedent and resolutive conditions
- Special clauses in contracts – time, penalty forfeiture, exemptions and interpretation.
- Special concepts – recession, novation, parole evidence, caveat suscripto rule, restraint of trace and force majeure / major
- Performance of contracts – initial and supervening impossibility
- Breach of Contract – forms of breach
- Remedies for breach of contract – damages, execution, interdict, cancellation & specific performance
- Termination of contract – ways in which a contract can be terminated.

Principles of Law of Sale and Special Sales
- What is a sale? (nature of)
- What are the essential elements of a sale?
- When is a sale (validity)
- Concept of risk and the passing off
- Concept of ownership of item / thing bought (what constitutes ownership)
- Concept of delivery
- Concept of defects – patent and latent
- What the buyer must prove in respect of defects
- Special remedies for defects – Aedelition remedies
- Rights and duties of the buyer
- Rights and duties of the seller
- Special sales – hp, lay-bye, auction, credit, e-commerce /on line, cif, for, fob

Principles of lease law
Commercial Premises (Lease Control) Act [Chapter 14 :04]
Housing and Building Act and Rent Regulations of 1982 and 2007
- definition and nature of lease
- lease versus hire
- lease regimes in Zimbabwe
- common law and statutory regulation
- essential elements of lease
- rights of the lessee and lessor
- duties of the lessee and lessor
- statutory tenancy
- “hire goes before sale” principle (huur gaat voor koop)
- Concept of lessor’s tacit hypothec
- Termination of the contract

Vicarious Liability Doctrine / principle
- general rule to liability
- nature of vicarious liability
- scenarios of the principle: employer; parent / guardian and owners of animals / stock
- bases / justification / grounds for application of principle
- application of principle by the courts
- case law applicable

Principles of Law of Agency
- Nature of agency
- Formation of agency – contract
- Authority / mandate

- Types of principals
- Liability of agent
- termination

Law of Security
Nature of and types of securities
Analysis of personal security:
- hypothec – nature of (see notes under contract of lease)
- mortgage – nature of, parties, rights and duties, and termination
- pledge – nature of, parties, rights and duties, and termination
- lien: nature and types of

Law relating to Hire-Purchase
- Higher Purchases Act [Chapter 14:09] (highly recommended)
- application of hire purchase in the current economy
- parties: seller / lessor / creditor and buyer / debtor / hirer
- definition and nature thereof – special type of sale – sale and hire (distinguish) 
- essential elements – requirements for a valid hire-purchase contract (ss 5; 7 & 11 of the Act)
- rights and duties of the parties in terms of the Act
- criminal offences committed by the hire / buyer / debtor (any three)
- termination of the hire-purchase contract

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Nature of Law 10
2. Contract Law 10
3. Delict 5
4. Company Law Concepts 10
5. Debt Collection 5
6. Law of Carriage 5
7. Business Law Concepts 15
8. Lease 10
9. Liability Doctrine 5
10. Agency 10
11. Law of security 5
12. Hire-purchase Law 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

AUTHOR TITLE & EDITION PUBLISHER CITY
Christie H (1992) Practical Commercial Law in Zimbabwe IBAS, Fomerly Foundation For Business Studies. Harare
Manase A J and Madhuku L 
(1996) A Handbook of Commercial Law in Zimbabwe University of Zimbabwe Harare
Christie H (1998) Business Law in Zimbabwe 2nd Edition Juta Cape Town
Bampton I and Drury D An Introduction to Zimbabwean Business Law Legal Resources Foundations Harare 
Madhuku L An Introduction to Zimbabwean Law University of Zimbabwe Harare
NkalaJ.C and Nyapadi, T J (1995) Company Law in Zimbabwe ZEDCO Harare
Abbort K, Pendlebury N, Wardman K (2007) Business Law 8th Edition Cengage Learning Hampshire, UK
Chizikani A R Laws of Zimbabwe: Exploitation and Self Help Guide Word and image publications Harare
Government of Zimbabwe The Hire purchase Act [Chapter 14:09] Government Printers Harare
Government of Zimbabwe The Consumer Contracts Act [Chapter 8:03] Government Printers Harare
Government of Zimbabwe The Contractual Penalties Act [Chapter 8:04] Government Printers Harare
Havenga, Peter et…al. (2010) 
General Principles of Commercial Law. 7th Edition Juta academic. Cape Town



SYLLABI - IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

1. AIM
The aim of this subject is to equip the student with the knowledge and competencies in managerial economics which affect the environment in which the business operates in.

2. Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Define Managerial Economics
- Examine the scope of Managerial Economics
- Discuss the use of models in business decisions
- Examine the role of business in society

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Risk Analysis
- Define risk, certainty and uncertainty
- Illustrate the measurement of risk
- List and discuss the elements of decision making procedure under conditions of uncertainty
- Discuss the following techniques for decision making under uncertainty
- Expected value criterion
- Minimum criterion
- Maximum criterion
- Minimax regret
- Decision Tree Diagrams

Demand Concepts for Decision Making
- Define demand
- Distinguish between demand function and demand curve
- Discuss interrelationships among price, total revenue and marginal revenue
- Illustrate the measurement of the various types of elasticities of demand

Demand Estimation and Forecasting
- Distinguish between demand estimation and forecasting
- Identify direct and indirect methods of demand estimation
- Discuss direct and indirect methods of demand estimation
- Discuss demand forecasting techniques
- List and discuss advantages and disadvantages of demand estimation and demand forecasting techniques

Cost Concepts for Decision Making
- Distinguish between:
- direct and indirect costs
- explicit and implicit costs
- opportunity and historic costs
- relevant and irrelevant costs
- Define incremental costs
- Apply cost concepts to decision making
- Explain the concepts of contribution analysis and break-even analysis

Cost Estimation and Forecasting
- Distinguish between cost estimation and forecasting
- List and discuss short-run cost estimation techniques
- List and discuss long-run cost estimation techniques
- Identify factors influencing cost forecasting in a firm

Pricing Analysis and Decisions
- Discuss modified behavioural models
- Discuss modified structural models
- Distinguish between mark-up and marginalist pricing
- Explain the following concepts
- Price positioning
- Price skimming
- Penetration pricing
- Product-line price strategy
- Examine the legal implications in pricing policies

Capital Budgeting and Investment Decision
- Explain the meaning of capital budgeting
- Discuss the following in the context of capital budgeting
- Net present value
- Internal rate of return criterion
- Payback period criterion
- Profitability index criterion
- Examine steps in the capital budgeting process
- Explain mutually exclusive investments

Developmental Issues
- Examine the rationale for regulation of the economy by government
- Distinguish Fiscal, Monetary, Trade, Prices, Incomes policies
- Discuss national Economic goals (Full employment, growth, etc.)
- Discuss the problems of less developed economies with reference to Zimbabwe (e.g. Dualism, budget deficits, unemployment, etc.)
- Discuss the following developmental issues
- Population, investment, growth points, joint ventures, ESAP, Imprest, EPZ, informal sector, foreign investment, Aid, Regional integration (SADC, COMESA, etc.)
- Discuss structures and functions of the IMF IBRD ADB.
- Critically evaluate the role of these international finance institutions in Zimbabwe (i.e. IMF, IBRD, ADB, etc)


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Nature and Scope of Managerial Economics 10
2. Risk Analysis 10
3. Demand Analysis 10
4. Demand Estimation 5
5. Demand: Applications of Concepts 10
6. Costing: Concepts 15
7. Costing: Estimation and forecasting 5
8. Pricing and Price Analysis 10
9. Capital Budgeting and Investment 10
10. Development 15
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING


AUTHOR TITLE & EDITION PUBLISHER CITY
Boyes W (2011) Managerial Economics Cengage Learning Michigan 
Boyes W (2011) Markets and the Firms 2nd Edition Cengage Learning Michigan
Hirschey M (2008) Managerial Economics 12th Edition Cengage Learning Michigan
Salvatore D (2007) Managerial Economics Oxford University Press New York
Salvatore D (2007) Principles and Worldwide Applications Oxford University Press New York
Froeb L et…al (2013) Managerial Economics 3rd Edition Cengage Learning Michigan
Maheshwari Y (2013) Managerial Economics PHI Learning Private Limited New Delhi
Maheshwari Y (2013) Kindle Edition PHI Learning Private Limited New Delhi
Samuelson W F and Marks S G (2011) Managerial Economics 7th Edition Wiley 
Thomas C and Maurice C (2012) Managerial Economics McGraw Hill New York
Thomas C and Maurice C (2012) Foundations of Business Analysis and Strategy 11th Edition McGraw Hill New York
Baye M and Prince J (2013) Managerial Economics & Business Strategy McGraw Hill New York
Ravikesh S D S(2008) Managerial Economics Oxford University Press Oxford
Ravikesh S D S(2008) Principles and Worldwide Applications 6th Edition Oxford University Press Oxford
Bruce A W Managerial Economics; Theory, Practice and Cases 7th Edition Viva Books New Delhi
Christopher T R (2011) Managerial Economics McGraw Hill New York
Christopher T R (2011) A Foundation of Business Analysis and Strategy McGraw Hill New York

 


SYLLABI - IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
RESEARCH METHODS

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to prepare students to undertake research activities and other enquiries on problems in their work situations or on problems and opportunities that arise in their environment.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Distinguish the various types of research
- Present an overview of the research process
- Develop and test hypothesis on a problem / opportunity
- Research on a problem / opportunity and present their findings, conclusions and recommendations
- Formulate a research design / proposal
- Select, explain and justify a research methodology
- Analyse and present research data
- Review literature that is relevant to the problem / opportunity that is the subject of an enquiry
- Orally present and defend / explain the methodology, findings and recommendations of a research
- Apply statistical techniques in research

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Introduction
- Define research
- Explain the purpose of research
- Distinguish scientific enquiries from non-scientific enquiries
- Distinguish the types of research
- Descriptive, Experimental, quasi-experimental (i.e. semi-experimental)

Overview of Research Process
The student should be introduced to the concept of research processes by a run-down of the major activities listed below:

- Problem / opportunity definition
- Preliminary studies (include desk research)
- Development of hypotheses / assumptions
- Statement of aims, objectives, limitations and delimitations
- Review of literature
- Designing a research proposal
- Deciding on a methodology and justifying it
- Analyse data from the research
- Interpret the data
- Formulate recommendations based on findings and conclusions
- Present the research results

The overview should enable the student to focus on the aims and objectives of the research theory

Definition of Problem / Opportunity
Discussion of the activities involved in the identification / definition of the problem
- Preliminary research
- Case studies
- Depth studies and problem audits
- Experience surveys and executive opinion
- Use of secondary data
- Background analysis
Justification of the research and definition of terms of reference
- Aims and objectives
- Definition / statement of hypotheses and assumptions

Literature Review
- Definition of literature review
- Explanation of the purpose of the literature review in research
- Indication of sources of literature
- Writing up bibliographies

Research Design
Defining and justifying research designs
- Exploratory design
- Descriptive design
- Experimental design
- Evaluative Design

Methodology
Types of data distinguished
- Primary and secondary data
- Qualitative and quantitative data
- Overt and non-overt data

Sources of data identified and explained
- Primary data – from field research
- Secondary data – from publications

Methods of extraction (Collecting) data discussed
- Interviews (Personal)
- Structured / unstructured
- Interviews (Telephone)
- Interviews (Mail) 
- Use of postal questionnaire
- Observations
- Abstraction from publications / records 
- Content analysis

Selection, explanation and justification of sampling designs
- Definition of population
- Definition of sample
- Justification of sampling
- Discussion of sampling designs
- Probability sampling designs
- simple random sampling
- systematic sampling
- stratified sampling
- multistage sampling
- cluster sampling
- Non-probability sampling designs
- quota sampling
- judgemental sampling
- Convenient
- Sample size determination
- Judgemental (subjective) approach
- Mathematical approach (use of standard error)

Research Instruments
Explanation of the concept of a research instrument and its significance
Questionnaires, defined and explained
Definition of questionnaires
Types of questionnaires discussed and designed (i.e. disguised / non-disguised)
Discussion of types of questions to be included
- Open-ended questions 
- Closed-end questions
- Dichotomous
- Scales
Discussion of the principles of a good questionnaire (brevity, clarity, specificity, etc)
Interview Schedules
- Definition of interview schedule
- Designing of interview schedule
- Observation form (schedule)
- Definition of observation schedule
- Designing of observation schedule

Data Presentation and Analysis
Data preparation
- Editing of data
- Coding of data
- Tabulation of data
- Discussion of computer aid
Data Analysis
- Test of hypothesis
- Calculation of and explanations of statistics and parameters
- Measures of central tendency
- Measures of dispersion
- Correction co-efficients
- Percentages and ratios
- Errors (to include absolute, relative, standard)
Data Presentation
- Use of the narrative
- Tabulations 
- Charts
- Graphs
- Equations and symbols
- Justification of the methods of data presentation
Interpretation of Data
- Developing conclusions from findings in research
- Developing and presenting recommendations from the findings and conclusions

Communication of Research Results
Significance of communication
Forms of communication
- Verbal communication 
- Written communication
- Principles and formats of verbal communication
- Principles and formats of written communication
- Format for written report
- Title
- Acknowledgement
- Executive summary
- Table of contents
- Chapter 1 (Introduction) Background information
- Problem definition
- Aims
- Objectives
- Hypotheses
- Assumptions
- Limitations
- Chapter 2 (Literature Review)
- Chapter 3 (Methodology)
- Chapter 4 (Findings, Analysis and Presentation)
- Chapter 5 (Conclusions)
- Chapter 6 (Recommendations)
- Bibliography
- Appendices

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Introductory concepts 10
2. Problem definition 10
3. Literature Review 10
4. Design 10
5. Methodology 15
6. Research Instruments 10
7. Data Presentation and analysis 15
8. Communication of the Research Results 10
9. Statistical Appendix 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

AUTHOR TITLE & EDITION PUBLISHER CITY
Welman C et…al (2005) Research Methodology 3rd Edition Oxford University Press Oxford
Saunders M (2012) Research methods for Business Students 6th Edition Pearson London
Cooper D R (2011) Business Research Methods 11th Edition McGraw Hill New York
Walliman Nicolas (2011) Research Methods London New York
Walliman Nicolas (2011) The Basics Routledge London, New York
Kothari C R (2004) Research Methodology New Age International New Delhi
Kothari C R (2004) Methods and Techniques New Age International New Delhi
Devlin Ann Sloan (2006) Research Methods Thomson/Wadsworth Belmont
Devlin Ann Sloan (2006) Planning, Conducting and Presenting Research Thomson/Wadsworth Belmont
Hair Joseph et…al (2011) Essentials of Business Research Methods ME Sharp New York
Rug Gordon & Petre Marian (2006) A Gentle Guide To Research Methods McGraw Hill London



IBAS INTERMEDIATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
ON THE JOB TRAINING (OJET)

1. AIM
The aim of the attachment is to marry theory with practice.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this attachment the student will be able to practice as an accounting technician or at the clerical level. Students who are unemployed or those employed in non-relevant areas will be required to undergo a period of at least one year industrial or commercial attachment in relevant positions.

3. ATTACHMENT PERIOD

The attachment period will be at least one year for each student. The attachment must be undertaken before one is allowed to graduate. Any waiver of this rule, where applicable will need to be obtained from the Institute. This applies to those students who will be employed already in relevant areas and may not need to go through the “On the Job Training” requirement.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME – PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFILE (LOGBOOK)

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Accounting 25
2. Finance 10
3. Taxation 10
4. Corporate Practice 10
5. Administration 10
6. Auditing 10
7. Information Technology 15
8. Planning and Economics 5
9. Human Resources Management 5
Total 100

 


SYLLABI - IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to develop knowledge and understanding of Financial Management methods for analysing the benefit of various sources of finance and capital investment opportunities and the application of management accounting techniques for business planning and control.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student should be able to:
- Explain the role and purpose of financial management
- Evaluate the overall management of working capital
- Evaluate the appropriateness of sources of funds
- Appraise capital investments through the use of appropriate methods
- Prepare budgets and use them to control and evaluate organisational performance

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Introduction 
- Definition, task and scope of financial management
- Development of financial thought
- Management as applied to the financial function
- The role of the financial manager in business and his relationship with other management functions.

Framework for Financial Decisions
- Financial decision making
- Business objectives
- Investment, financing and dividend decisions
- Financial decisions and risk-return relationships

The Financial Environment
- Introduction to Financial markets
- Primary and secondary markets
- Money and capital markets
- Money market instruments
- Capital market instruments
- Interest rate fundamentals – opportunity cost, term structure of interest rates
- The economic indicators
- Key elements of the corporate tax environment, or tax code

Time Value of Money
- The time value of money
- Simple and compound interest
- Nominal and effective rates
- Future value
- Present value
- Annuities
- Amortised loans
- Present value of uneven stream
- Perpetuities


Principles of Capital Investment: -
- Guidelines for capital budgeting
- Capital budgeting techniques
- Payback period
- Net present value
- Internal rate of return
- Accounting rate of return
- Profitability index

Sources of Finance: - 
- Identify sources of long term finance
- Identify sources of short term finance
- Discuss the characteristics of each source of finance
- Discuss the ways of raising finance from each source
- Advantages and disadvantages of each source of finance
- Compare and contrast the various sources of finance
- Discuss the process of an “initial public offering”

Introduction to Capital Structure: - 
- Business risk and financial risk
- Break-even analysis – calculation, illustrations, limitations
- The importance of capital structure
- Basic approaches of examining the effect of leverage
- EBIT-EPS analysis of different capital structures
- Coverage and debt-to-equity ratios

Dividend Decisions: -
- Dividends versus retentions
- Factors influencing dividend policy
- Dividend policy and share prices
- Dividend growth model
- Types of dividend policy
- Dividend payment procedures
- Use of non-cash dividends (stock dividends and stock splits)
- Use of stock repurchases

Management of Working Capital: -
- Definition and calculation of working capital
- Working capital and liquidity
- Managing current assets
- Managing current liabilities
- Managing stock, debtors, cash and creditors

Managing Profitability - 
- Principles of profitability analysis
- Use of financial ratios
- Types of ratios
- Liquidity ratios
- Profitability ratios
- Efficiency ratios
- Leverage ratios
- Investment ratios
- Dupont-analysis

Business Failure: - 
- Causes of business failure in Zimbabwe
- Symptoms of Bankruptcy 
- Re-organisation

Small Business Finance: - 
- Objectives and organisation of small businesses
- Sources of finance
- Institutions supporting small businesses
- Micro-financing
- Venture capital

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Introduction to Financial Management 10
2. Framework for financial decisions 5
3. The Financial Environment 10
4. Time value of money 10
5. Principles of capital budgeting 10
6. Sources of Finance 10
7. Introduction to Capital Structures 10
8. Dividend Decisions 5
9. Management of Working Capital 10
10. Managing Profitability 5
11. Business Failure 5
12. Small Business Finance 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

AUTHOR TITLE & EDITION PUBLISHER CITY
Correia Carlos et….al Financial Management 7th Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Gitman Lawrence J & Zutter Chad J (2011) Principles of Managerial Finance 13th Edition Prentice Hall London
Van Horne James C & wachowicz John Martin (2008) Fundamentals of Financial Management Prentice Hall London 
Van Horne James C & wachowicz John Martin (2008) Financial Times Prentice Hall London 
Arnold Glen (2012) Corporate Financial Management 5th rev Edition Pearson Education Limited Harlow 
Ramsden Philip (2011) Financial Management Hodder & Stoughton London
Conradie w M & fourie CMW (2011) Basic Financial Management Juta Academic Cape Town
Brigham Eugene F & Ehrhardt Michael C (2011) Financial Management Theory & Practice 13th Edition Cengage Learning London 
Du Toit Elda (2013) Corporate Financial Management in Southern Africa CSSA Pretoria

 


SYLLABI - IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to specify, and assess the essential knowledge or skills involved in running and managing the marketing function in an organisation.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the internal and external environment in which marketing decisions are made
- Understand the principles of marketing
- Understand the key decision areas in marketing
- Understand the role of marketing in a firm
- Formulate marketing strategies and make appropriate decisions for the organisation
- Appreciate the marketing challenges when marketing beyond one’s national borders

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Nature of Marketing
- What is marketing; Marketing activities; Marketing orientations
- A seven step approach to defining market segment opportunities, and target marketing and product positioning including basic demographics

Marketing Environment: 
- Management and environmental change, micro environment, market environment, macro environment, environmental scanning

Marketing Function
- Place of marketing function, management tasks in marketing

Competitive Behaviour
- Market segmentation, targeting and positioning for competitive advantage

Buyer Behaviour
- Understanding customer and buyer behaviour leading to transaction taking place and the decisions necessary to introduce new products 
- Individual factors, group factors, organizations’ buyer behaviour
- Buying decisions

Market Research
- Value of market research as a basis for decision-making, and product testing and promotional and sales research
- Quantitative and Qualitative data and methods of collection - both primary / field and secondary / desk, and cost, accuracy, time and security limitations on market research
- Research on the internet

Marketing Information Systems
- Information needs, marketing information systems
- Information management

Market Planning
- Marketing planning process, setting objectives, mission statement
- Formulating strategies, situation analysis / review, objective setting

Product/service
- Characteristics of each, introduction of new products/services including naming, branding and portfolio management, and the life cycle

Packaging
- Physical, legal, protective and other requirements

Distribution
- Selection of a distribution structure, and retailing, wholesaling, agents, and other available channels.
- Types of distribution channels, integrated distribution channels
- Distribution Strategy

Price versus value
- Pricing policies and the economic, market, psychological, opportunity and penetration factors affecting these. Price objectives and decisions

Promotion
- Elements of the promotional mix covering benefits, unique selling propositions, above and below the line
- Branding

Communications
- Elements of communication mix covering public relations, advertising, packaging, sales promotion and direct selling 
- Online marketing

The After Market
- Guarantees, spare parts and after sales service

Relationship Marketing
- Broad view of the market, expansion

Services Marketing
- Nature and characteristics of a service
- Marketing strategies, for service firms
- International services marketing

International Marketing
- Globalization, changing world economy
- Value of customers

E-Marketing
- Role of internet in today’s marketing


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Nature of marketing 10
2. Marketing Environment 5
3. Competitive behaviour 5
4. Buyer Behaviour 5
5. Market Research 10
6. Marketing Information Systems 5
7. Marketing Planning 5
8. Product / Service 5
9. Packaging 5
10. Distribution and Place 5
11. Pricing 5
12. Promotion and Communication 5
13. The after market 5
14. Relationship marketing 5
15. Services marketing 5
16. International Marketing 10
17. E-marketing 5
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

AUTHOR TITLE & EDITION PUBLISHER CITY
Jobber David (2010) Principles and Practice of Marketing 6th Edition McGraw Hill London 
Kotler Philip & Armstrong Gary (2009) Principles of Marketing 13th Edition Prentice Hall London
Perreault William D Cannon Joseph P & Mccarthy E Jerome (2011) Basic Marketing McGraw Hill London
Perreault William D Cannon Joseph P & Mccarthy E Jerome (2011) A Marketing Strategy Planning Approach McGraw Hill London
Baines Paul & Fill Chris (2014) Marketing 3rd Edition Oxford University Oxford
Chaston Ian Small (2014) Small Business Marketing 2nd Edition Palgrave Macmillan Basingstoke
Levens Michael (2014) Marketing: Defined, Explained, Applied/Michael Levens Pearson Harlow Essex
Kerin Roger A (2006) Marketing 8th Edition McGraw Hill/Irwin London
Sharp Byron & Anderson Katherine (2013) Marketing: Theory, Evidence, Practice Oxford University Press Oxford

 


SYLLABI - IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
ECONOMICS

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to equip the student with the knowledge and competencies in economic principles which affect the environment in which the business operates in.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to.
- Understand the principles of micro and macro economics.
- Understand the relevance of these principles in the application of economic policies.
- Understand the difference between micro economic and macro economic problems.
- Analyse economic issues and proffer possible solutions.
- Distinguish the types of business organisation and understand factors that influence their formation, growth, and survival.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Overview of Economics
- What is economics
- Resources scarcity and choice
- Factors of production, division of labour, economies of scale
- The role of government in the economy
- The mixed economy, command economy

National Income
- Circular flow of national income, components of national income
- National income accounts
- Methods of measuring national income and output

Demand, Supply, Prices and Market Structure
- The price system, market prices and factor prices 
- Basic theories of consumer demand, utility, prices 
- Marginal and average costs, fixed and variable costs, opportunity costs, short and long-run costs
- Law of diminishing returns, increasing and decreasing costs
- Price and output determination under conditions of perfect and imperfect competition and monopoly, including State undertakings
- Profit maximization and equilibrium analysis. Normal and super-normal profits.
- Micro-level investment decisions, expected rates of return
- Elasticities of demand and supply – including cross market prices – effects of taxes, subsidies

Level of Economic Activity
- An outline of the Keynesian analysis
- Determination of level and changes in income and employment, propensities to consume and save, the multiplier effect - including foreign trade and government
- The accelerator, determination of level of investment, liquidity preference and rate of interest
- The monetarist critique
- Government policies and relationship with inflation
- Consumption, savings and investments – their determinants
- The equilibrium of national income
- Aggregate demand and supply – The multiplier formula

Money and Prices and National Income
- Meaning and functions of money, and credit
- Development of money, functions and attributes
- Measuring the supply, inflation, money and capital market
- Financial systems and monetary policy
- Systems and methods of monetary control
- Government policies and relationship with inflation

Labour 
- Elementary knowledge of wage determination in conditions of perfect and imperfect competition
- Effect of trade unions on wage levels, wage differentials and level of employment
- Trade unionism in Zimbabwe
- Monopoly in the labour market

Theory of Distribution
- Marginal distribution theory, determination of wages
- Economic rent and transfer earnings
- Capital and interest – appraising investments, financing the firm
- Enterprise and profits

Taxation and Fiscal Policy
- Type of taxes and their effect on incomes and prices 
- Individual and corporate activity

Welfare Economics
- Pareto criterion
- Allocative efficiency, efficiency and the free market

Market Failure
- Causes of failure, imperfect competition, externalities
- Public goods, government’s role
- Privatisation
- Transport and the economy

National Economic Policies and Economic Development
- Aims and conflicts of policy in relation to full employment, economic growth, price stabilization, balance of payments, equilibrium, income distributions, regional growth and employment balance, mixed economy, relationship between Government, public and private sectors
- Major problems confronting developing economies, including capital formation, population, agriculture, investment choices, trade relationships and international finance

The International Economic System
- The gains of international trade – comparative advantages and its limitations
- International trade relationships and monetary problems, including: balance of payments adjustment processes, fixed and flexible exchange rates, world liquidity, protective devices, primary commodity schemes and trading blocs, the role of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
- Protectionism
- Influence of Trade blocks

The Zimbabwean Economy
- The historical output of the economy, current structure, recent economic performance and current economic methods
- Levels of employment, inflation, national debt
Growth and Development
- Factors influencing growth, the debt problem, people and growth, development economics
- Role of regional bodies
NOTE:
The examination will be related primarily to the Zimbabwean economy.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Overview 10
2. Demand and Supply Concepts 10
3. Prices and Market structures 5
4. Level of Economic Activity 5
5. National Income 10
6. Factor market and Distribution Theory 10
7. Fiscal Policy and Taxation 5
8. Welfare Economics 5
9. Market failure 5
10. Economic goals and policies 10
11. The international economy 10
12. Zimbabwean Economy 10
13. Growth and Development 5
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

AUTHOR TITLE & EDITION PUBLISHER CITY
Lipsey R G and Chrystal A (2007) Economics 11th Edition Oxford University Press Oxford
Beardshaw John et…al (2001) Economics 5th Edition Pearson Harlow, Essex
Sloman John (2006) Economics 6th Edition Dorling Kindersley New Delhi
Mohr Philip Fourie Louis (2008) Economics 4th Edition Van Schalk Pretoria
Hubbard R Glenn & O’Brien Antony Patrick Economics 4th Edition Pearson London
S J Grant (2003) Stanlake’s Introductory Economics 7th Edition Longman Harlow,Essex
Samuelson Paul A & Nordhaus William D Economics 18th Edition McGraw Hill New York
Pancer David Nellis Joseph (2006) Principles of Business Economics 2nd Edition Financial Times/Prentice hall London

 


SYLLABI – IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
ZIMBABWE TAXATION

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to develop and assess the essential knowledge and skills involved in the handling of corporate and individual’s taxation issues.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to.
- Understand the tax framework, environment and the law that regulates taxation
- Prepare tax computations for individuals, partnerships and companies and covering industry types such as miners, farmers, etc
- Understand the difference between income tax and capital gains tax
- Have an understanding of sales tax and or VAT, withholding taxes particularly PAYE
- Engage in tax planning for organisations and individuals

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Taxes levied in terms of the Income Tax Act (Chapter 23.06) with particular reference to:

The Income Tax Act 
- gross income
- deemed accruals
- income from assets in deceased estates
- sources of income
- exempt income
- general and specific deductions
- dividends
- individuals, minors, natural persons, partnerships, trusts, companies, private business corporations, farming, mining, export processing zones, growth points
- insurance companies, financial institutions, non-profit and statutory corporations

Aspects of Income Tax Act
- livestock and farm produce
- trading stock
- suspensive sales
- interest incurred and accrued
- lump-sum benefits
- non-resident taxpayers
- avoidance and evasion
- fringe benefits
Procedures
- returns
- assessment
- payment
- Recovery and refund
- Withholding taxes
- Important court decisions which clarify tax law and relate it to generally accepted tax practice.
- The administration of the Act, including Annual Payment Dates
- The current practices of the Commissioner General
- Tax planning
Duties levied in terms of the Estate Duty Act (Chapter 23:03) with particular reference to:
- The Estate Duty Act and other relevant legislation including the Administration of Estates Act:
- estate – (its meaning)
- valuation
- deduction
- duty payable
- returns required
- important court decisions
- the practices of the Commissioner of Taxes 
- estate planning

Taxes levied in terms of the Value Added Tax Act with particular reference to-
- the Value Added Tax Act and relevant Statutory Instruments
- important decisions
- the practices of the Commissioner of Taxes
- tax planning

Taxes levied in terms of the Capital Gains Tax Act (Chapter 23:01) with particular
reference to:
- The Capital Gains Tax Act 
- calculation of tax payable
- rollover
- withholding tax
- payment, assessment, refund
- Important court decisions
- The practices of the Commissioner of Taxes
- Tax planning - sale of business

- Other taxes, rates, levies and duties – legislation and liability:
- crop levies
- property rates and taxes
- customs duties and import taxes
- paysheet levies – Standards, Zimdef, NEC and NSSA

• Questions will be set on any of the provisions of the Income Tax Act, Finance Act, Value Added Tax and Capital Gains Tax Act.
• Students will be required to submit answers to certain questions in the form of reports or memoranda and to quote the relevant case law.
• Questions will be based on the legislation applicable to the year of assessment ended on the 31st December in the previous calendar year.

NOTE:
• Students may make use of hand-held, self-powered, silent, non-programmable calculators but immediate working steps must be shown.
• Students may take into the examination room an unmarked copy of the Income Tax Act (as amended) and of the Finance Act and the Capital Gains Tax Act.
• Students are permitted to take in their ZXNET Amended Zimbabwe Taxation Statutes provided that no notes or commentaries are included.


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Income Tax Act 15
2. Indirect taxes 20
3. Capital Gains Act 15
4. Income Taxation principles 15
5. Value added taxation 20
6. Duties 15
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Tagara E (2006) Zimbabwe Taxation (Revised Edition) Vision Publications Harare
Zimbabwe Government (1996) Finance Act (Revised Edition) Government Printers Harare
Zimbabwe Government (1996) Capital Gains Tax Act (Revised Edition) Government Printers Harare
Bloch H Zimbabwe Income Tax Guide (1999-2000) ZXNET Harare
Hill L W (1997) Income Tax in Zimbabwe (4th Edition) Butterworths Durban
Zimbabwe Government Income Tax Act Chapter 23:06 (Revised Edition) Government Printers Harare
Tapera, Marvellous. (2014) Taxation Principles in Zimbabwe: A Comprehensive Tax Guide. Gramsol books. Harare 
Murray E (2011) Taxation in Zimbabwe Directory Publishers Harare
• ZCTA Taxation handbook. Institute of Chartered Accountants of Zimbabwe (Latest edition). Harare.
• Income Tax Act (1996)
• Capital Gains Tax Act (1996)

 


SYLLABI - IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

1. AIM

The aim of the subject is to develop and assess competencies in the Human Resources Management function of the organisation.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the role and function of Human Resources in an organisation
- Understand the law that relates to aspects of Human Resources Management
- Evaluate Human Resources systems, make appropriate decisions and recommendations as regards to:
- Human resources recruitment and selection
- Training and development
- Performance and reward 
- Organisational Culture
- Appreciate the pivotal role of Human Resources in an organisation’s strategy

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Personnel Management
- The duties of a personnel manager and his place in the organization of a business 
- Personnel management
- Managing a workforce
- Organisation of work 
- Organisational types and differences

Human Resources Recruitment and Selection
- Short and long term planning 
- Labour turnover, recruitment and selection – Labour markets, Job analysis, Personnel Specification, Job descriptions, recruitment methods, selection methods, equal opportunities, interviewing

Performance and Reward
- Performance appraisal – merit rating
- Rewards and motivation – theories of motivation, effective leadership
- Incentives
- Performance related pay
- Indirect compensation
- Employee empowerment
- Benefits, staff welfare
- Job evaluation

Training and Development
- The learning process
- Short and Long-term planning
- Induction and education programmes in general
- Training, of apprentices and supervisors
- Policies on promotions, transfers, dismissals, and retrenchments
- Training and development for strategic success – competence assessment
- Organisational Development – quality and productivity

Organisational Culture
- Framework of organizational culture:
- Managing ‘culture’, the role of Human Resources Management
- Organisational culture and business success.
- Management of culture change

Law Practice Relative to:
- remuneration, hours of work, overtime, holidays, sick leave, fringe benefits, employment records
- the employment contract / rights and obligations of the parties 
- pension funds, medical schemes, insurance and PAYE 
- employee’s safety 
- industrial accidents

Effective Communication
- Interpersonal skills
- Communication – the need and the communication patterns
- Counselling – role and skills
- Conflict management – grievance procedures, discipline management

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Personnel Management Principles 10
2. Human Resources Recruitment and Selection 15
3. Performance and Reward 10
4. Training and Development 10
5. Organisational Culture 5
6. Legal Aspects of Personnel Management 15
7. Health, Safety and Wellbeing 10
8. Communication 5
9. Grievance Processes 10
10. Disciplinary 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Zimbabwe Government (1984)
Income Tax Act 23:06 Government Printers Harare
Zimbabwe Government (2000)
Income Tax Act 23:06 Government Printers Harare
Zimbabwe Government (2003)
Labour Act 28:01 Government Printers Harare
Zimbabwe Government 
(1984)
Manpower Planning & Regulations Act 28:02 Government Printers Harare
Makings G (2004) Commentary on the Labour Act (4th Edition)
Howard Dean & Company Harare
Bates A (2006) Personnel Management in Zimbabwe Harare 3rd Edition Jann Consultancy Harare
Jackson SE Schuler RS and Werner S (2009) Managing Human Resources 10th Edition South Western Learning Manson 
Armstrong Michael A (2012) Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resources Management 12th Edition Kogan Page London
Grobler Pieter A et…al (2011) Human Resources Management in South Africa 4th Edition Cengage Learning Hampshire
Fisher C D et…al (2005) Human Resources Management Biztantra New Delhi
Amos T et… al (2008) Human Resource Management 3rd Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Swanepoel B J (2014) South African Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice 5th Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Price Alan (2007) Human Resource Management in a Business Context 3rd Edition Cengage Learning London
Raymond A N et…al (2012) Human Resources Management Prentice Hall New Jersey

 


SYLLABI - IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING II

1. AIM

The aim of the subject is to build on the body of accounting knowledge learnt in the Financial Accounting subject, develop and assess knowledge and skills required in the preparation of various forms of Accounts and accounting statements of various organisations.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Prepare company financial statements for internal and external use
- Prepare simple consolidation accounts
- Prepare specialised accounts i.e. Branch accounts, Royalties, Investments
- Interpret and analyse financial accounts
- Make the necessary preparations for audit

3. LEARNING CONTENT

General revision of Financial Accounting

Partnerships
- Accounting for partnerships including changes in profit sharing ratios and conversion to companies and dissolutions

Corporate Accounting
- Steps in formation, issues of shares and debentures of limited companies including pre-incorporation profits. 
- Preparation of financial statements of companies for management and publication in compliance with statements and guidelines on generally accepted accounting practices, including the International Accounting standards.

Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements
- Preparation of basic financial statements of companies where subsidiaries are wholly owned complying with relevant International Financial Reporting Standards including treatment of taxation in Financial Statements and Accounts.

Accounts of Different Types of Organisations
- Preparation of accounts for branches and trusts

Transactions of a Special Nature
- Investments, underwriting, redemption of shares and debentures
- Royalties
- Consignments 
- Joint ventures
- Hire purchase (in accordance with relevant accounting standards)

Analysis and Interpretation
- Financial statements and the use of ratios
- Using ratios to analyse and interpret financial statements e.g. activity, liquidity, profitability and gearing ratios

Statements of Cash Flows
- Preparation of statements of cash flows for companies (excluding consolidated statements of cash flows) as per the requirements of the relevant International Financial Reporting Standard(s)

Accounting Information as an aid to Management
- Preparation of budgets, forecasts, cash budgeting

NOTE:
• Students may make use of hand-held, self-powered, silent and non-programmable calculators but intermediate working steps must be shown.
• Students are expected to apply theory to practical situations.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Partnerships 20
2. Corporate Accounting 20
3. Financial Statements 20
4. Types of accounts 20
5. Analysis and interpretation of accounts 20
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Dempsey A et..al (2011) Introduction to Financial Accounting 8th Edition LexisNexis Durban
Wood Frank Sangster Alan (2013) Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition Prentice Hall London 
Wood Frank & Sangster Alan (2012) Frank Wood’s Business Accounting 2, 12th Edition Pearson London
Kew J & Watson A (2012) Financial Accounting: An Introduction Oxford University Press Oxford
Musamba J F (2001) Introductory Accounting 3rd Edition NG Publications Harare 
Harrison Walter T et…al (2012) Financial Accounting 9th Edition Prentice Hall London
Kothar Jagdish & Barone Elisabelt(2006) Financial Accounting: An International Approach Prentice Hall London 
International Accounting Standards Boards (2012) International Financial Reporting Standards International Accounting Standards Board U K

 


SYLLABI - IBAS DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING I

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to instil the knowledge, key skills and competencies necessary to act in a Cost and Management Accounting function.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the framework of Cost Accounting
- Perform cost accounting functions using the various costing methods
- Advise Management on business decisions based on cost and management accounting concepts
- Analyse the cost accounts and use variance analysis to guide decision making
- Develop suitable costing systems for the organisation

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Distinction between cost accounting, management accounting and financial accounting

Elements of cost
- Their nature and classification
- Cost centres and cost units
- Relationship between cost and financial accounts
- Double entry theory applied to cost accounting records, interlocking and integral accounts

Classification of materials
- Purchasing stores
- Basic controls applied to purchasing (including economic order quantity), pricing of stores issues and inventory valuation, valuation of work in progress

Quality and Control
- Just In Time Purchasing and Manufacturing
- Total Quality Management

Remuneration
- Principles of wages control including the learning curve and payroll routine

Overheads
- Analysis and classification of overhead expenses, their apportionment to cost centres and absorption into cost units 
- Activity based approaches to Cost Analysis

Product costing
- Principles applied to job, process and service type industries
- Conversion cost and accounting for material losses
- Problems of common cost
- Joint products, by products
- Activity based costing – use of cost drivers and activities

Budgetary Control 
- Objectives of budgetary control, evaluation of budget systems
- All types of budgets including: 
- Fixed and flexible budgets, cash flow budgets, use of variances 
- Quantitative aids to budgeting, use of computer based models 
- Behavioural implications of budgeting and budgetary control

Marginal costing
- Theory and practice
- Contribution concept
- Break even analysis
- Profit/volume ratios
- Margin of safety
- Profit graphs
- Relevant costs, limiting factors, including problems requiring elementary linear programming solutions, decisions about alternatives, such as make or buy, and shutdown

Standard costing
- Types of standards – (basic, normal, current, expected and ideal standards)
- Setting standards, Variance analysis, two, three and four variance analysis, treatment and utilization of variances
- Significance and relevance of variances, planning and operational variances
- Behavioural of implications
- Patterns of cost behaviour
- Influence of volume of activity
- The preparation of profit reconciliation statements using either standard marginal costing or absorption costing principles

Quantitative Techniques in Management Accounting 
- (Statistical replacement methods i.e. vehicle replacements, other replacements, inventory control
- models, transportation models)

NOTE:
• Students may make use of hand-held, self-powered, silent, non-programmable calculators but intermediate working steps must be shown.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Elements of costing 10
2. Classification of costs 10
3. Quality and control of costs 10
4. Remuneration 5
5. Overheads 5
6. Product costing 10
7. Budgetary control 10
8. Marginal costing 15
9. Standard costing 10
10. Quantitative Techniques in costing 5
11. Management Accounting 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Drury Collin (2008) Management and Cost Accounting 7th Edition Cengage London
Els G et…al Fundamentals of Cost and Management Accounting 6th Edition LexisNexis Durban
Le Roux GS and Lotter W A (2003) Basic Principles of Cost and Management Accounting – A Student’s Guide Latest Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Lucey Terry (2009) Costing 7th Edition Cengage London
Whitecotton Stacey et…al (2014) Managerial Accounting McGraw Hill Irwin New York
Horngren Charles T et…al (2014) Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis 2nd Edition Prentice Hall New York
Lucey Terence (2003) Management Accounting 5th Edition Continuum London 
Pelle and Hustler Cost and Management Accounting 1 Tutorial Workbook Latest Edition Juta Academic Cape Town

 


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
AUDITING

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to instil the principles and impart the key skills necessary to be able to understand and operate in an audit function.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the Framework and purpose of auditing
- Be able to appreciate the nature and theory of the Auditing function
- Carry out internal audit functions

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Historical Developments of Auditing
- Statement of responsibilities
- Audit committees

Principles of Auditing
- Nature of Auditing
- Objectives of an Audit
- Auditing Standards
- Role of Internal Auditor, compatibility with auditing standards
- Independence, professional qualifications, Role of external auditor
- Reliance on work of an Internal Auditor
- Appointment, Duties and Rights of an Auditor
- Company Law provisions affecting auditors

The Audit Process
- Planning
- Materiality and risk assessment
- Familiarisation with the client (knowledge of business)
- Controlling and Audit and working papers
- Recording the system

- Audit tests and sampling. Compliance and substantive test techniques ranging from enquiry, observation, examination, sampling, re-performance, and re-calculation to establish that the work has been properly performed.

- sampling techniques
- audit evidence
- management letters
- audit reports – any benefits to be derived from auditor’s activities will normally be accomplished through the medium reports on findings and recommendations
- bank and external confirmation

Responsibilities and how compatible they are
- Evaluating the system. Evaluation of internal control from the standpoint of how well the accounting system provides for information that is adequate and accurate; protection of resources of business from losses due to theft, embezzlement or carelessness. (This is normally a part of the external auditing function). Evaluation of clerical and accounting efficiency: effectiveness of procedures, utilisation of resources, use of mechanical and electronic equipment, adequacy of personnel. (This is normally part of the internal auditing function).

Professional Ethics – International Federation of Accountants Requirements on Auditing

Computer Auditing
- Audit procedures of computer applications – input controls, processing controls, output controls, user controls and general controls.
- Advanced computer auditing such as the use of internet, e-commerce Eft, Pos, etc.

Reliance on Others
- Specialists – Lawyers, property valuers, etc. Other activities – work performed by other auditors at branches or subsidiaries.

Evaluating and Concluding
- Post Balance Sheet events
- Contingencies and commitments
- Completion of the audit
- Going concern and letters of representation

Audit Practice
- Relevance of controls to the internal and external audit
- The nature of systems of internal control
- Evaluation of systems of internal control

Notes:
Knowledge of International Accounting Standards and the International Auditing guidelines is a pre-requisite.

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Historical Development 10
2. Audit principles 15
3. Audit process 15
4. Responsibility and How Compatible 10
5. Computer Audit 15
6. Reliance on Others 10
7. Evaluation and Conclusion 15
8. Audit Practice 10
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Millichamp, Alan & Taylor John (2012) Auditing 10th Edition Cengage Learning London
Von Puttick and van Esch (2007) The Principles and Practice of Auditing Juta Academic Cape Town
Marx Ben et…al (2011) Applied Questions on Auditing LexisNexis Durban
Cascarino R &Van Esch S (2006) Internal Auditing :An Integrated Approach Juta Academic Cape Town
Barlow P (1995) The Business Approach to Internal Auditing 3rd Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Louwers Timothy J et…al(2011) Auditing and Assurance Services McGraw Hill New York
International Federation of Accountants (2012) Handbooks of International Auditing, Assurance and Ethics Pronouncements (Latest Edition) International Federation of Accountants U K
Beasley Mark Eledr Rundal Alvin Arens (2010) Auditing and Assurance Services 13th Edition Prentice Hall New Jersey 


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT II (OPTIONAL)

1. AIM

The subject aims to make the student aware of the role of the financial manager in an organisation and the various ways in which he / she can help in increasing the value of the firm and hence shareholder value.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Identify and justify strategies for increasing firm value.
- Select and use appropriate techniques in dealing with financial decisions taken by an organisation.
- Advise on courses of action to be taken by an organisation in specified situations.
- Grasp an important and underlying financial management theory and application.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

General revision of techniques covered in Introduction to Financial Management

Objectives and Corporate Management and Governance 
- Aims and objectives of an organisation and their impact on business planning
- Key stakeholder of an organisation
- Environmental issues and their impact on corporate objectives
- Concept of goal conference
- Corporate Management and Governance issues

Capital Budgeting
- Types of investment projects
- Replacement or expansion
- Independent and mutually exclusive projects
- Divisible and indivisible projects

- Capital Budgeting Techniques
- Discounted payback
- Initial investment, annual cash flows and project terminal value

- Comparing projects with unequal lines including equivalent annual annuities
- Capital budgeting under inflation: inflation and discount rate nominal and real rates
- Tax and tax allowances
- Capital rationing – capital constraints and project rankings

Capital budgeting: Risk Analysis
- Expected value and probability distributions
- Certainty equivalents
- Sensitivity analysis
- Break-even analysis
- Capital asset pricing model; financial leverage.

Capital Structure
- Leverage (Gearing): impact on earnings, impact on risk
- Optimal Capital Structure
- The net income approach
- The Net operating income approach
- The traditional approach
- The Modigliani – Miller (MM) approach
- The contemporary approach
- The impact on inflation
- Target Capital Structure

Portfolio Management
- Two asset portfolio and vetura
- Measuring two asset portfolio returns
- Principles of portfolio risk
- Two asset portfolio risk
- Positioning an investor on the efficient frontier
- Multiple Share Portfolio Risk and Return
- Benefits of diversification
- Beta and capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
- The efficient markets hypothesis
- The weak form
- The semi strong
- The strong form
- Testing for market efficiency
- Evidence of efficiency of Stock Exchanges

Dividends and Dividend Policy
- The residual approach to dividends
- Factors affecting the dividend decision
- Legal requirements
- Information content of dividends
- The nature of the shareholders
- Agency factors
- Dividend Payment Policies
- Stable dividend amoun t
- Stable payout ratio
- Stable dividend plus bonus
- The Payment of Dividends
- Bonus issues and share splits
- Dividend reinvestment plans
- Repurchase of own shares by company
- Dividends in kind

Mergers and Takeovers
- Types of mergers
- Reasons for mergers
- Terms of mergers
- Acquisition financed by cash
- Acquisition financed by share issue
- Setting an offer
- Mergers and dividends, working capital and net asset value
- Defensive tactics – proactive and reactive measures
- Regulation of takeovers
- Management buy-outs

Risk Reduction using Financial Instruments
- Rationale for financial innovation
- Fundamental derivative instruments – options, futures and forward contracts
- Risk reducing techniques
- Natural ledger
- Hedging with interest rate swaps

Foreign Exchange Management
- Historical background
- The balance of payments
- Current Account
- Capital Account
- Official Reserves
- The foreign exchange market
- Direct and indirect quotations
- Bid – ask spread
- Spot and forward transactions
- Forward rate and premium / discount
- Cross rates
- Exchange rate theories
- Interest rate parity
- Purchasing power parity (PPP)
- Integrating interest rate parity and purchasing power parity
- Foreign exchange exposure
- Transaction exposure
- Translation exposure
- Economic exposure
- Hedging Policies
- Forward exchange contract
- Money market hedge
- Current options
- Currency of invoice
- Leads and lags


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Governance issues 10
2. Capital Budgeting 10
3. Capital Budgeting and Risk Analysis 15
4. Capital Structure 10
5. Portfolio Management 10
6. Dividends and Dividend Policy 15
7. Mergers and Takeovers 10
8. Risk Reduction using Financial Instruments 10
9. Foreign exchange management 10
Total 100


5. RECOMMENDED READING


Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Correia Carlos et…al Financial Management 7t Edition Juta Academic Cape Town
Gitman Lawrence J & zutter Chad J (2011) Principles of Managerial Finance 13th Edition Prentice Hall London
Van Horne James C & Wachowicz John Martin (2008) Fundamentals of Financial Management Financial Times/Prentice Hall London
Arnold Glen (2012) Corporate Financial Management 5th rev. Edition Pearson Educational Limited Harlow
Ramsden Philip (2011) Financial Management Hodder & Stoughton London
Conradie W M & Flourie CMW (2011) Basic Financial Management Juta Academic Cape Town
Brigham Eugene F & Ehrhardt Michael C(2011) Financial Management: Theory & Practice 13th Edition Cengage Learning London
Du Toit Elda (2013) Corporate Financial Management in Southern Africa CSSA Pretoria
Brockinton R (1993) Financial Management (6th Edition) DP Publications London
Richard A, et al (2000) Principles of Corporate Finance (5th Edition) McGraw-Hill New York

 


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
CORPORATE MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to equip the student with knowledge, skills and attributes that will enable the student to practice good Corporate Management and Governance in public and private companies

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand governance issues
- Determine directors and shareholders’ entitlements
- Produce financial reports
- Match rewards and contributions
- Assess risks
- Safeguard organisations’ assets

3. LEARNING CONTENT

PART ONE WHAT IS CORPORATE MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE?
- Definitions and issues in Corporate Management and Governance
- Development of Corporate Management and Governance
- Stakeholders in a company
- Key objectives in Corporate Management and Governance
- Key issues in Corporate Management and Governance
- Approaches to Corporate Management and Governance
- Concepts, ethics and roles
- Concepts in Corporate Management and Governance
- Ethics and Corporate Management and Governance
- Corporate social responsibilities
- Whistleblowers
- The company Lawyer and Corporate Management and Governance
- The company secretary and Corporate Management and Governance

PART TWO DIRECTORS AND SHAREHOLDERS
- The powers of directors and rights of shareholders
- The powers of directors
- The duties of directors to their company
- Fiduciary duties of directors
- A director’s duty of skill and care
- Fair dealing by directors
- Directors’ legal responsibilities to employees and other stake holders
- Shareholders’ rights 
- Other restraining measures against directors
- Shadow directors and alternative directors
- Balance of power on the board-Suitability
- Character and qualities
- The board and decision-making
- The roles of chairman and chief executive officer
- Non-executive directors
- Board appointments
- Board succession
- Training directors
- The lessons of Enron
- Two-tier boards
- Non executive directors-Independent and
- non- independent non-executive directors
- The number of non-executive directors
- The role of non-executive directors
- Criticisms on non-executive directors
- The Higgins Report
- Relations with shareholders
- The relationship between the board and the shareholders
- The shareholders-Shareholder expectations
- Regulatory requirements for shareholder involvement
- Measures by the board to improve relations
- Measures by Shareholders to improve relations
- Electronic communications and electronic voting
- The OECD Corporate Management and Governance principles and shareholder rights

PART THREE FINANCIAL REPORTING, REWARDS AND RISKS
- Financial reporting and auditing
- Financial reporting and Corporate Management and Governance
- Misleading financial statements
- The role of the external auditors: the audit report
- Auditor independence
- Controls over the audit profession
- The audit committee
- Directors’ responsibilities for financial statements
- Directors’ remuneration
- Public attitudes
- Elements of remuneration for executive directors
- Share options (stock options)
- The remuneration of non executive directors
- The remuneration committee
- Disclosure and approval of remuneration details
- Shareholder approval of directors’ remuneration
- Remuneration policy
- Directors’ service contracts
- The Greenbury Report and recommendations
- Developments in the United States
- Risk management and Corporate Management and Governance
- The nature of risk-Internal control system
- The Turnbull Committee Report on internal control
- The role of internal audit
- Risk management
- The board’s statement on internal control
- Developments in risk management as governance issue

PART FOUR A HISTORY OF CORPORATE MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE
- A history of Corporate Management and Governance in the United Kingdom
- The Cadbury code
- The Greenbury Report
- The Hampel Report
- The Combined code
- The Higgs Report and the Smith Report
- Future changes in UK company law
- An international history of Corporate Management and Governance
- The OECD principles of Corporate Management and Governance
- Corporate Management and Governance and the Commonwealth countries
- The King reports (South Africa)
- Corporate Management and Governance in the United States


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME
Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Governance concepts 25
2. Directors and Shareholders 15
3. Financial Reporting 15
4. Rewards 15
5. Risk Analysis 15
6. Historical development 15
Total 100

5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Coyle Brian (2014) Corporate Management and Governance 4th Edition ICSA London
Fernando A C (2009) Corporate Management and Governance : Principles, Policies and Practices Dorling Kindersley New Delhi
IODSA (2009) The King III Report on Corporate Management and Governance in South Africa Institute of Directors South Africa Johannesburg
Kneale Clive (2012) Corporate Management and Governance in Southern Africa ICSA South Africa
Goergen Marc (2012) International Corporate Management and Governance Pearson Education Harlow
Gugler Klaus (2001) Corporate Management and Governance and Economic Performance Oxford University Press Oxford
Thomas Clarke (2004) Theories of Corporate Management and Governance Routledge London 
McCahery Joseph A & Erik P M Vermeulen (2008) Corporate Management and Governance of Non Listed Companies Oxford University Press Oxford 
Henry A (2008) Understanding Strategic Management Oxford University Press London
macAvoy P Millstein (2003) The Recruitment Crisis of Corporate Management and Governance Macmillan Palgrave


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING III

1. AIM

The aim of the subject is to impart knowledge and skills in Financial Accounting at a higher level to be used in Commerce and Industry.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Prepare Financial Statements according to the provisions of the I.A.S., IFRS and in compliance with the Zimbabwe Companies Act Chapter 24:03 and its subsequent Amendments.
- Analyse and interpret Financial and related information and produce reports to meet the needs of internal and external users.
- Appraise the theoretical and regulatory aspects of the Accounting function.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Revision of aspects of company accounts covered at Diploma Level
- Legal requirements
- The corporate financial statement for internal use
- Published Accounts

Interpretation and Analysis of Accounts
- Comparative financial statements and composite
- Ratio Analysis
- Group Statement of Cash Flows as per IAS 7

Acquisitions, Take-overs and Mergers
- Business valuation
- Calculation of purchase consideration and methods used
- Accounting treatment in Books of purchasing company and Books of Vendor Company
- (Intra-group transactions, Inter-company owing)
- Inter-company holdings when purchasing company holds shares in Vendor Company and when Vendor Company holds shares in purchasing company and when shares are held by both companies in each other.

Alteration of Share Capital and Internal Reconstruction
- Alteration of share capital
- Re-organisation through surrender of shares
- Scheme of Capital reduction
- Steps in re-construction

Liquidation
- Legal provisions
- Meaning and salient features
- Order of payment
- Preferential Payment
- Liquidator’s final statement of account

Price Level Accounting / Inflation Accounting (IAS 29)
- Financial Statements and price level changes
- Methods or techniques of price level accounting
- Current Purchasing Power Technique
- Current Value Accounting Technique
- Historical Cost Accounting
- Pricing and valuation of inventories 
- Maintenance of working capital (Monetary items)

Deferred Taxation (IAS 12)
- Meaning and scope of Deferred Taxation
- Timing Differences
- Permanent Differences
- Tax losses
- Comprehensive method
- Partial method
- Transfer to and from of Deferred Tax Account
- Taxation disclosure in financial statements

Modern Development in Accounting and Reporting

Group Statements (IFRS 3, 10, 11 & 12)
- Consolidated group statements
- Vertical and Horizontal groups
- Wholly owned and partly owned subsidiaries
- Changes in the degree of shareholding
- Dividends on ordinary shares including the treatment of dividends from pre-acquisition profits
- Inter-Company Transactions
- Treatment of Contingent liabilities
- Treatment of unrealised profits
- Revaluation of assets and liabilities
- Preference shares in Subsidiaries
- Reciprocal stock holding for both not involving inter-company profits on asset transfers and involving inter-company profit on asset transfers
- Foreign subsidiaries
- Accounting for subsidiaries and Associated Companies

4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Interpretation and Analysis 15
2. Acquisitions, Takeovers and Mergers 10
3. Capital Reconstruction 15
4. Liquidation 10
5. Price Level Accounting / Inflation Accounting 10
6. Deferred Taxation 15
7. Group Statements 25
Total 100


5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
International Financial Reporting Standards Latest Edition IASB London
Companies Act (Chapter 24:03) 
Public Accountants and Auditors Act (Chapter 27:12) 
Opperman, Booysens, Binnekade and Oberholster (2013) Accounting Standards 15th Edition 
C K N Mans and N Boshoff Group Statements – Volume 1 (Latest Edition) 
C K N Mans and N Boshoff Group Statements – Volume 2 (Latest Edition) 
International Accounting Standards Board (2012) International Financial Reporting Standards International Accounting Standards Board U K
Wood Frank & Sangster Alan (2012) Frank Wood’s Business Accounting 2. 12th Edition Pearson London 
Cairns T Dickinson K C King K (1992) Selected Questions in Accounting (6th Edition) Juta & Co Kenwyn
Zimbabwe Government (2000) Companies Act Chapter 24:03 Government Printers Harare 
Cilliers H S Mans K N (1998) Group Statements (6th Edition) Butterworths Durban

 


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTING

1. AIM

The aim of this subject is to teach students to understand generally the role accounting plays in the public sector and particularly the working of the basic forms of public sector accounting.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Understand the legal basis of public sector accounting
- Budget for a public sector environment
- Plan expenditure for government and local government
- Invest public funds
- Manage a public fund
- Source revenue for government

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Introduction to Government Accounting
- What is Government Accounting?
- Purpose of Government Accounting
- Users of Government Accounting Information
- Users of Government Accounting Information
- Comparison between Government Accounting and

Private Sector Accounting
Basis of Government Accounting
- Cash Basis
- Accrual Basic
- Commitment/Obligation/Encumbance Basis

Legal Basis of Government Accounting
- Nigerian Constitution
- Audit Act 
- Finance Act 1
- Finance Regulation
- Finance and Treasury Circular

Functions of Finance Officers
- Accountant General of the government
- Auditor General for the government
- Accounting Officers
- Sub Accounting Officers
- Revenue Holders
- Impress Holders
- Officer Controlling Expenditures

Sources of Government Revenue and Government Expenditure
- Sources of Revenue
- Classification of Revenue into;
Federation Account Revenue Head
Federal Government Account Revenue head or Consolidated 
Revenue Fund
Development Fund
- Government Expenditure -- Recurrent and Capital
Fund Accounting- Classification of Funds
- Types of Funds
- Justification of Fund Accounting

BUDGET AND BUDGETARY CONTROL IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
- Objectives/uses of animal budget
- Types of budgeting system
- Traditional/incremental budgeting
- Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB)

Planning Programming Budgeting System (PPBS)
- Budgetary Process/cycle in Zimbabwe
- Personnel Cost Budget

Local Government Accounting:
- Need for Local Government
- Function of Local Government
- Functions of Local Government treasurer
- Sources of Local Government Revenue
- Books of Accounts Kept by Local Government

Investment Appraisal and Cost Benefit Analysis
Accounting for Public Sector Organization
Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organization


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Introductions 8
2. Private Sector Accounting 7
3. Legal Basis for Public Sector Accounting 10
4. Functions of Finance Officers 5
5. Sources of Government Revenue and Government Expenditure 15
6. Budget and Budgetary Control in to Public Sector 10
7. Planning Programmes Budget System 10
8. Local Government Accounting 10
9. Investment decisions 10
10. Accounting for Public Sector Organisations 10
11. Accounting for Non-profit organisations 5
Total 100



5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Rowan, Jones & Pendlebury Maurice (2010), 
Public Sector Accounting
Education. 6th ed. Pearson Harlow, Essex
Public Sector Accounting (latest edition) SAAA Publications 
Understanding Central Government Finance and Accounts (latest edition) SAAA Publications 
Government of Zimbabwe Rural District Accounting Handbook Ministry of Local Government Harare
Institute of Municipal Finance Officers’ Handbook Harare City Treasurer’s Library Harare
IFAC (2009)
Handbook of International Public Sector Accounting Pronouncements IASB

London,
Government of Zimbabwe Urban Councils Act (Chap 29:15) & Rural Urban Councils Act (Chap 29:13) Government Printers Harare
Government of Zimbabwe Published Annual Accounts of Central Government, Local Authorities and Parastatals Harare
Government of Zimbabwe Public Finance Management Act (Chapter 22:19) Government Printers Harare
Daniel G I Public Sector Accounting, Ahmadu Bello University Press Zaria
SAFE Associates Ltd Public Sector Accounting and Finance Question and Solution Pack SAFE Associates Ltd Lagos
Awoyemi, E O A Guide to Government Accounting Internal Audit Onibonoje Press Ibadan


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING II (OPTIONAL)

1. AIM

The aim of the subject is to provide an understanding of advanced techniques in management accounting and their use as an aid to management.

2. LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the conclusion of this module the student will be able to:
- Prepare and critically analyse budgets.
- Evaluate management performance.
- Apply appropriate management accounting techniques for short-term decision making.
- Critically evaluate standards set by management.
- Evaluate investment proposals.

3. LEARNING CONTENT

Budgetary Control
- Objectives of Budgeting
- The budgeting process including approaches to budgeting e.g. zero-based budgeting, incremental budgeting, PPBS
- Administering the budget
- Functional budgets and master budget
- Cash Flow Budget
- Flexible Budgeting
- Budgetary control statement / performance report
- Behavioural aspects of budgeting

Standard Costing
- Concept of Standard Costing
- Setting standard costs
- Computation of variances on material, labour, overhead and sales
- Advanced variances: materials and labour mix and yield variances, planning and operating variances
- Variance Analysis
- Accounting for variances: ledger entries, variances in income statements and operating variances
- Significance of variances

Responsibility Accounting and Performance Measurement
- Objectives of responsibility accounting
- Responsibility centres-cost centre, revenue centre, profit centre, investment centre
- Factors in measuring performance
- Measuring divisional performance
- Return on investment and residual income as measures of performance
- Investment turnover
- Operating rate
- Performance at different levels
- Measures for improving performance
- Decisions to improve performance

Transfer Pricing
- Meaning and objectives of transfer pricing
- Different bases for transfer prices: variable cost, full cost, market price, market price minus opportunity cost
- Appropriate (optimum) transfer price under different conditions

Relevant Costs and Decision making
- Concepts: relevant and irrelevant costs
- Opportunity costs
- Sunk costs
- Incremental costs
- Replacement costs
- Decision making costs
- Choice of method of production
- Replacement of equipment
- Lease, buy or make decisions
- Operate or shut down
- Short-range pricing
- Sell as is or process further
- Total income approach vs. relevant data in decision making
- Probability in decision making

Investment Decisions / Capital Budgeting
- Planning capital expenditure
- Controlling capital expenditure
- Methods of evaluation: accounting rate or return (ARR) profitability index (PI), internal rate or return (IRR), net present value (N.P.V.).
- Income tax, depreciation, inflation and capital expenditure
- Probability in capital budgeting

Planning and Control Techniques
- Network analysis
- Linear programming


4. ASSESSMENT SCHEME

Three-hour examination paper with questions set and distributed on the basis of the weighting shown in the scheme below.

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Budgetary Control 15
2. Standard Costing 20
3. Responsibility Accounting and Performance Measurement 15
4. Transfer Pricing 15
5. Relevant Costs and Decision Making 10
6. Investment Decisions / Capital Budgeting 15
7. Planning and Control Techniques 10
Total 100


5. RECOMMENDED READING

Author Title & Edition Publisher City
Drury Collin (2008) Management and Cost Accounting 7th Edition Cengage London
Els G et…al Fundamentals of Cost Management Accounting 6th Edition LexisNexis Durban
Le Roux G S and Lotter W A (2003) Basic Principles of Cost and Management Accounting Juta Academic Cape Town
Lucy Terry (2009) Costing 7th Edition Cengage London
Horngren Charles T (2013) Introduction to Management Accounting 16th Edition Prentice Hall New Jersey
Whitecotto Stacey et…al (2011) Managerial Accounting McGraw Hill Irwin New York 
Horngren Charles T (2014) Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis 2nd Edition Prentice Hall New Jersey 
Lucey Terence (2003) Management Accounting 5th Edition Continuum London

 


SYLLABI - IBAS HIGHER DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING STUDIES
RESEARCH PROJECT

PRESENTATION GUIDELINES

1. AIM

The purpose is to highlight the specifications in the presentation of the research project in order to achieve uniformity and consistency. The section covers the following aspects: -

- The Preliminary (front) pages
- The Research Report Text
- Text Formatting
- Back pages material
- Binding

2. RESEARCH PROJECT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

Preliminaries

In the preliminary pages of the research project the following should be presented:

- General presentation / appearance
- Title - Should be clear and adequately identifying scope of the report
- Relevant and brief
- Acknowledgements
- Abstract / Executive Summary
- Title
- Objectives
- Methodology
- Findings
- Conclusion
- Recommendation 
- Table of Contents

Introduction (Chapter 1)
- Background
- Statement / problem definition
- Purpose / Objective
- Statement of Hypothesis
- Significance of the study
- Assumptions
- Delimitations of the study
- Definition of terms
- Summary

Literature Review (Chapter 2)
- Major concepts and issues of study
- Methodological issues identified
- Sources of literature
- Summary of findings
- Gap identified
- Thrust of research shown
- Text citing format
Research Methodology (Chapter 3)
- Introduction
- Research Design
- Appropriateness of problem
- Sources of data identified 
- Research Instruments
- Appropriateness of problem
- Clear questions or instruments
- Summary

Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion (Chapter 4)
- Introduction
- Data Presentation Process
- Scan, sift and organise data
- Presentation of data
- Testing hypothesis 
- Use of Charts, graphs
- Calculation of correlation co-efficients 
- Discussion of findings and limitations

Summary (Chapter 5)
- Brief summary of major finds of the research

Conclusions
- Supported by facts presented
- Drawn from findings
- Related to the objectives

Recommendations
- Linked to the project objectives
- Practical solutions
- Relevant and derived from findings

Appendices
- Methodology of the study


Project length should be between 7 500 and 10 000 words.

3. ASSESSMENT SCHEME
Research Project:

To submit a Project Report Covering areas on the basis of the weighting shown below

No. Topic Weighting (%)
1. Background 15
2. Literature review 15
3. Methodology 10
4. Analysis, Data Presentation & Findings 20
5. Conclusions 10
6. Recommendations 15
7. Summary, Acknowledgements Appendices 15
Total 100

RESEARCH PROJECT: ORAL

ASSESSMENT COMPONENT WEIGHT %

1. Explanation of Topic and Justification of Study 10
2. Justification and Explanation of Methodology 20
3. Explanation of Aims, Objectives, Limitations and Destinations 15
4. Explanation and Justification of Findings 20
5. Justifications of Conclusions 5
6. Explanation of Recommendations 20
7. Personal Presentation 
- Composure and confidence
- Dress
- Self-expression
- Mannerisms
- General presence 10
Total 100

TUITION PROVIDERS

It is the responsibility of students and not of the Institute to arrange study programmes. Enquiries may be made at the IBAS Office for advice in this regard so as to obtain the names of colleges which are accredited by the Institute to offer IBAS tuition.